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Raffaele Viviani - Testi on-line

Via Toledo by Night

This translation was published in "20th Century Italian Drama: The First 50 Years", An Anthology, edited by Jane House and Antonio Attisani (Columbia University Press, 1995).
Those wishing to purchase the book or get information on its contents may click on the URL:


A One-Act Play with Music
(Via Toledo di notte, 1918)
by Raffaele Viviani
Prose and Verse Translated by Martha King
(with thanks to Giovanni Nucci for assistance with the Neapolitan dialect)
Lyrics adapted by Marilyn Firment

Setting: Naples 1918


LEOPOLDO COLETTA, coffee vendor

SCARRAFONE or COCKROACH, old news vendor

CIENTEPELLE or COWBELLY, cooked meat vendor


TUMMASINO, the Millionaire




RUSELLA, the couch grass seller

PASCALINO, the little baker







MIMÌ, café waitress

NICOLA, night watchman

GNAZIO, driver for hire







FILUMENA, the Fat One

MARIA, the Nuisance



DON AITANO, the Consumptive


CRISTINA, the Minor

AFFUNZINO, the Stutterer



Scene 1

Curtain up.

Via Toledo, at the corner of Vico Berio, near Piazza San Ferdinando. Late at night. winter. SCARRAFONE, the old news vendor, is shivering in a corner at right. At left two men are on the ground playing a cord game: one is CIENTEPELLE, the cooked-meat vendor - who has a little pushcart nearbv - and the other player is FURMELLA, a young idler.

A CRY (of LEOPOLDO COLETTA, the itinerant coffee vendor): "Coffee for sale! Coffee cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise! Leopoldo Coletta is here. Ready to serve you. Come get your coffee!"
SCARRAFONE (gives his "cry"): "The Italian Daily! Rome Tribune! Final edition! Naples Courier!"
ANOTHER CRY (far away, nostalgic: the snail and boiled mussels vendor) "Mussels from Taranto! Lovely snails . . ."

(TUMMASINO the Millionaire enters. He is a young pimp, with a manner somewhere between arrogant and chivalrous. He is called "the millionaire" strictly for his verbal ostentation. In reality he is a poor man. He is wearing a short jacket with the collar turned up against the cold. His hands are in his pockets. He comes from Piazza San Ferdinando and, after a glance at the street corner, makes a gesture of contempt. He asks SCARRAFONE about someone.)

SCARRAFONE: Who? Ines! I don't know her!
TUMMASINO (responds with a brief nod of greeting; he looks again at the street corner and mutters): . . . No doubt she's joined a nunnery!

(And he goes over to the players. LEOPOLDO enters carrying a brazier with a copper coffeepot in one hand, and a large square basket in the other.)

LEOPOLDO (repeats his cry): "Coffee for sale! Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise! Leopoldo Coletta is here. Ready to serve you. Come get your coffee!" (He stops right front.)
TUMMASINO (to the players in a superior tone): What's the ante?
CIENTEPELLE (looks up at him square in the face, irritated): Six soldi.
FURMELLA (smiling deferentially): Thirty centesimi.
TUMMASINO (with a tone that admits of no reply): Give me a nickle.
CIENTEPELLE: Why should I?
TUMMASINO: That's the racket!
CIENTEPELLE (annoyed): Take all six.
TUMMASINO: Four belong to me. (He bends down to collect the four soldi and puts them in his pocket.)
FURMELLA (through his teeth): What a swell guy!
CIENTEPELLE (boiling with indignation, after shuffling the deck of cards, to FURMELLA): Cut!
FURMELLA ("cuts" the deck, with a sigh. And the two begin to play again. ")
TUMMASINO (goes over to LEOPOLDO): Good evening, Liopo'.
LEOPOLDO: Oh! The distinguished Don Tommasino! Aren't we the lucky ones.
TUMMASINO: Gimme a cigarette.
LEOPOLDO: (hands him one) Where've you been? We haven't seen you lately.
TUMMASINO: Taking the air at San Francisco prison.
LEOPOLDO: At San Francisco? What for?
TUMMASINO: For nothing! Swindle, assault and battery, and bearing illegal arms.
LEOPOLDO (ironically serious): Well, for such trifles they arrest an honest man?!
TUMMASINO: What can ya do? When the law gets on your back there's no arguing! (He lights the cigarette.)
LEOPOLDO: May I heat up the coffee for you?
TUMMASINO: No. What have I done to deserve that? Ya wanna ruin what little health I got left?
LEOPOLDO: You want coffee? You can have it. I made it fresh today with sediment only a week old.
TUMMASINO: Oh, yeah?
LEOPOLDO: My word of honor. As an expression of my regard.
TUMMAUSNO: So let's have this offering!
LEOPOLDO (prepares the coffee).
SCARRAFONE (gives his cry): 'The Italian Daily! Final edition! Just out!"
CIENTEPELLE (stretching his numb legs while FURMELLA shuffles the cards): What's the score?
FURMELLA: Ten for you, and one for me!
CIENTEPELLE (rubbing his hands with satisfaction): Shuffle! Shuffle!
FURMELLA (angrily): Cut!
CIENTEPELLE ("cuts" the deck. The game begins again).


THE PIZZA MAKER'S CRY: "Get 'em while they're good and hot! Pizza!" (from off stage.)
(The PIZZA MAKER enters, blowing a flat whistle. He is toting a large warming oven on his head.)
(Music breaks).
LEOPOLDO (to the PIZZA MAKER): Hey, haven't you gone home yet?
THE PIZZA MAKER: . . . How can I go home before I sell these pizzas? Should I take them home to sleep with me? (He looks around and gives his cry) "Swimming in oil!" (He blows the whistle again.)


LEOPOLDO (winks at the vendor, laughing.)
THE PIZZA MAKER (gives his cry): So hot they're burning me . . .
TUMMASINO (bitingly): Get outa here!


Went out early in the evening:
Walked the streets for five long hours!
(Pizza warmer's like a freezer)
(Points to the warmer. Gives his cry.)
"Good and hot!"

LEOPOLDO (ironically):
Right! In this weather!
THE PIZZA MAKER (laughs in spite of himself):
They're not pizzas, they're leather pieces.
If I don't sell 'em, I cut them up,
And sell you laces for your shoes.
(He continues with his cry.)
"They're fresh and wholesome!"
SCARRAFONE (breaking into laughter):
THE PIZZA MAKER (justifying himself):
They are pizzas made in wartime:
made of sawdust and of bran:
you need a saw to cut them up!
(His cry again.)
"Get your pizzas! I'm moving on!"
TUMMASINO (crossly):
Then get going. Are you still here?
THE PIZZA MAKER (bitterly):
That's just fine for one who's eaten;
what do you care if someone starves!

(Music breaks).

LEOPOLDO (looks at the pizza maker in sympathy.)


THE PIZZA MAKER (gives his cry): "Get 'em while they're good and hot! Pizza! Oh! Pizza!"

(The vendor wanders around blowing his whistle.)

LEOPOLDO (hands the coffee to TUMMASINO): Here you are, sir.
CIENTEPELLE (to FURMELLA): You've made four points! (Shuffles the cards.)
FURMELLA: And the one I had makes five! Five to ten! Thanks to the Madonna! (He rubs his hands in satisfaction.)
CIENTEPELLE (crossly): Cut! (The game continues.)
TUMMASIN0 (sips the coffee, spits it out and turns to LEOPOLDO in disgust): Phew! I could throw it in your face. I had such a nice taste in my mouth and now you've ruined it!
LEOPOLDO: Is it too strong?
TUMMASINO: Get lost. This is the stuff that poisoned Christ!
THE PIZZA MAKER (quits blowing because the whistle is acting up.)

(Music breaks).

(To SCARRAPONE, laughing.) See? Even the whistle's got a cold!
SCARRAFONE: My "Italian Daily" has had a toothache all day.
THE PIZZA MAKER (makes a gesture as though to say, What an exaggeration! and gives his cry): "Yeah, so hot they're burning me!"
TUMMASINO: So throw 'em on the ground. (referring to the pizzas)
THE PIZZA MAKER (looks at him.)
TUMMASINO: Leopo', ya shouldn't 'a give me this coffee! (He gives back his cup.)
THE PIZZA MAKER (looks at SCARRAFONE, who is laughing; he begins again.) "Well, I'm moving on . . ."
TUMMASINO: Then get a move on.
THE PIZZA MAKER: ". . . Well, I'll soon be gone . . ."
TUMMASINO: Then get going!
THE PIZZA MAKER (the interruption makes him stammer nervously): Y-y-young man, let me do my work. All right? I got a lot of worries on my mind and all you can think about is making fun of me!
TUMMASINO: No one wants your pizzas now!
THE PIZZA MAKER: No one wants them right now? They can eat them tomorrow! The day after tomorrow . . . a month from now . . . a year from now. . . or when we have another war . . .
SCARRAFONE (ironically): . . . or in a couple of centuries!
THE PIZZA MAKER: The pizzas last in here! (He points to the warmer.) Are they going to run away? (pause) So, you don't know my plan? Well! Once I kept two pizzas for three months and I transformed 'em. The lard and cheese I smeared on 'em became like little fish. And I sold 'em! I sold 'em!
TUMMASINO: . . . You sold 'em!
THE PIZZA MAKER: The guy who ate 'em even thanked me. He got drafted, and they discharged him right away. Not fit for military service!
SCARRAFONE (laughing): He had stomach cancer!
LEOPOLDO (to the pizza maker): What can you do? Today pizza's past its time . . .
THE PIZZA MAKER (offended): Oh, Liopo', why should two old merchants quarrel?
TUMMASIN0 (commiserating with him): "Merchants"!?
THE PIZZA MAKER (to LEOPOLDO): Pizza, if you don't know it, has been ruined by the goings on in Europe! Or else it'd be selling all over the world right now!
LEOPOLDO: What's that got to do with it?
THE PIZZA MAKER: Oh, Liopo'! (as if to say: how dumb can you be) What's the war done? It's turned life upside down. Those who were up are down, and those who were down are up; and in all this reshuffling what happened to the pizza lovers? They've vanished! (pause) Then what's the collapse of the exchange rate done? It's made the pizza collapse, too. The exchange rate went up, and pizza went down!
LEOPOLDO: I don't get it.
THE PIZZA MAKER: What is pizza? Something to eat, no? Made with flour, no? And the flour, where does that come from? From abroad!
TUMMASINO: Oh, yeah . . . it's very expensive . . .
THE PIZZA MAKER: And also pizza took a dive because its price went up. Before, with two soldi, you could get a nice pizza with cheese, lard, tomato, mozzarella. You could smell the aroma! Oh, what consolation! Now for a lira and a half you get a little nothing (He shows how small.), and when you get a whiff of it you drop dead! (The others laugh.) And why's that? Because, after all, the ingredients aren't as good as they were before! (to LEOPOLDO) Do you know that at the allies conference in Genoa they talked more about pizza than anything else? Anyway, despite everything, my wife who-like me-always has her hands in the dough, she, even in this crisis, has a weakness for stuffed pizza . . . Once I used to go home and ask her: "Woman, what d'ya want for supper?" "Oh, make me a stuffed pizza with something in it like ricotta, salame, eggs, mozzarella . . ." And now that times have changed, she still has the same idea. "Woman, what d'ya want for supper?" "Oh, make me a stuffed pizza with something in it like ricotta, salami, eggs, mozzarella . . ." "Hang on! You can still have the pizza, but you're gonna have to wait for the stuffing till the prices come down!" (Everyone laughs.)
TUMMASINO (incredulous): Yeah!
THE PIZZA MAKER: Jesus! They said that food's supposed to be cheaper an' be as good as before.
TUMMASINO: What does that mean?
THE PIZZA MAKER: Why, isn't pizza food?
LEOPOLDO: Yeah, you're right!
THE PIZZA MAKER: Can you tell me your coffee's like the coffee before the war?
LEOPOLDO: Yes, it's the still the same!
THE PIZZA MAKER: Exactly the same?
LEOPOLDO (nods): Yeah!
THE PIZZA MAKER: Like what you've got here?
LEOPOLDO: Never mind: the quality's the same! (Everyone laughs)
THE PIZZA MAKER: Well, so long (Goes his cry.)


Get 'em while they're good and hot? Pizza here! Oh! Pizza!"

(He exits blowing his whistle.)

(Music breaks.)

CIENTEPELLE (with a gesture of irritation, pretends to rip the cards): These lousy cards have changed!
FURMELLA (very happy) I got another five points and now we're even!
CIENTEPELLE (very nervous; barely restraining himself): Cut! (The game continues.)
TUMMASINO (to LEOPOLDO): What do I owe ya?
LEOPOLDO: Two soldi for the cigarette and one for the coffee: three soldi.
TUMMASIN0 (with his superior air): You'll get it tomorrow.
LEOPOLDO (not pleased).
TUMMASINO: I don't want to break my coin!
LEOPOLDO (through his teeth): Like it was a gold piece!
TUMMASINO (looks around again nervously; he turns to LEOPOLDO): . . . Seen a woman with hair on her head?
LEOPOLDO (joking): No, I saw one with a beard go by.
TUMMASINO: . . . The one with all the hair: Ines . . .
LEOP0LDO: Do I know dear Ines?
TUMMASINO (bitterly): Oh, well! I'm goin' fishing!
LEOPOLDO: Lotsa luck! (TUMMASINO hurries out)
FURMELLA (euphoric): Score! (plays) Score! Oh! Oh! Score! (to CIENTEPELLE ironically) . . . are you gonna give up . . . ?
CIENTEPELLE (violently throws the cards in the air): Jeez! (to FURMELLA, contemptuously) Cut! (He stands up.)
FURMELLA: What? Giving up?
CIENTEPELLE (giving him a shove): Cut! Or I'll throw these cow guts in your face.
FURMELLA (silently picks up the cards.)
CIENTEPELLE (starts to leave.)
FURMELLA (calls him back): Hey!
CIENTEPELLE: I'm not playing!
LEOPOLDO (sarcastically): I see Montecarlo's closed!
CIENTEPELLE (angrily): What nerve! Look how bad I lost!! (To SCARRAFONE) But how could he win ten to one?
SCARRAFONE: Cientepelle, how much did you lose?
CIENTEPELLE (biting his lip): What a day! What a wasted day! That's what it was!
LEOPOLDO: Did you lose a lot?
CIENTEPELLE: I can't break the habit! I can't break . . .
SCARRAFONE: Can't you tell me how much you lost?
CIENTEPELLE: I'm a jerk! A jerk and a sap! I lost three soldi!
SCARRAFONE: Just look at that! (in an ironical tone of superiority) Here we bet all of a half lira!
LEOP0LDO: Those two are high rollers! (He laughs.)
CIENTEPELLE (takes his pushcart and goes toward San Ferdinando, crying): "Sheep's feet! Pig's feet! Chewy tripe! Snout! They melt in your mouth! Sheep's feet! Pig's feet!'' (He exits.)
FURMELLA (finishes counting the cords): Thirty-eight, thirty-nine . . . One card's missing!

(He looks around for it. GASTONE and FRITZ enter, two very elegant gentlemen in overcoats, top hats, and canes. They are having an animated discussion.)

FRITZ: I'm never going back to that club again! How did the baron score nine eleven times in a row at "baccarat"?
SCARRAFONE (gives his cry): "The Morning! The Afternoon! The Evening!" (The two pay no attention to him.) "The whole day!" (He strolls around bored, stamping his feet on the ground to keep warm.)
GASTONE (to FRITZ): But listen, you shouldn't have plunged in like that . . .
FRITZ: Why not?
GASTONE: You shouldn't have taken such a chance!
FRITZ: Oh, Christ! I'd already lost three thousand lire. I was trying to recoup
SCARRAFONE (starts up his cry again): "The Rome Tribune! The Daily Italian!"
GASTONE (going up to the coffee vendor): Leopo', give me a pack of cigarettes. But not like those ten dried out twigs you sold me last night. (to FRITZ) Say, do you want any?
FRITZ: Didn't you get some? They'll do for me, too.
GASTONE (between his teeth): He's made me cashier!
FURMELLA (to SCARRAFONE, indicating FRITZ): His pal's broke!
LEOPOLDO (gives the cigarettes to GASTONE. He asks): Do you both want coffee?
GASTONE (disgustedly): Yuk! It's disgusting, made with chicory!
LEOPOLDO (with subtle irony): No, I used to make it with chicory. But now I make it with crushed chestnuts. I even tried to make it with beans, but it came out too light, so I had to add some black soot to make it darker.
GASTONE (handing him some money): Sure, very funny! Here are two lire. Give me the change.
LEOPOLDO: . . . And you say it's chicory! (He digs in his pocket for the change; then he turns to SCARRAFONE.) Hey, can you change these two lire?
SCARRAFONE: What do you think?
LEOPOLDO (to FURMELLA): You got change?
FURMELLA: Never had two lire. (He keeps counting his cards.)
SCARRAFONE (to LEOPOLDO): See the grass seller on the corner!
LEOPOLDO (goes to the corner of Vico Berio and calls loudly): Ruse'!
FURMELLA: . . . Thirty-eight, thirty-nine . . . Still thirty-nine and that's it! (to FRITZ in a confidential tone) Well, what can you do? It's the luck of us gamblers . . .
FRITZ (offended, to GASTONE): Do you know this bum?
FURMELLA: It cost me a card to win three soldi! Now I don't have a full deck! (He goes away muttering.)
FRITZ: . . . Three soldi! I lost eight thousand lire! (pause) Oh, well, eight thousand lire, more or less . . . Gastone, lend me two soldi for the newspaper.
GASTONE: Whatever you say. (He gives it to him.)
FRITZ (to SCARRAFONE) "Italian."

(He buys the newspaper. RUSELLA, the couch grass seller, enters: she is very young, with an open, honest face. She is carrying two bundles of couch grass under her arm.)

RUSELLA (to LEOPOLDO): Who wants me?
LEOPOLDO: No one. I called you to change these two lire for me.
RUSELLA (annoyed): You'll get what you deserve someday! (She begins to count her change.)
FRITZ: Oh, Gastone, look how cute the grass seller is!
GASTONE: A real pretty girl. (He goes up to the girl and strokes her cheek. )
RUSELLA (indignant): Hey, you! What do you think you're doing? Do you want the money in your face?
LEOPOLDO (softly to SCARRAPONE, laughing): Now the aristocracy is going to get it!
GASTONE: Oh, take it easy, little girl. I was only teasing.
RUSELLA: Teasing? Do it to your sister! Yuk, look what I have to put up with! (to LEOPOLDO) . . . Just because we're all here at night in the street, they think that makes us all alike.
GASTONE: But . . .
RUSELLA (counts the money out nervously): Four! Eight, twelve, sixteen and four, twenty. Here! (She hands the money to LEOPOLDO and goes off down the street with a determined step that makes her clogs resound.)
LEOPOLDO (goes up to GASTONE, barely able to keep from laughing): Here's your change! (He gives it to him)
FRITZ: . . . Gastone, you've made a fool of yourself!
GASTONE: (seriously): Know what I just realized? If I ever get married, I'll marry a grass seller!
FRITZ: Yeah! (As if to say: you don't say so!)
GASTONE: But you saw how modest she is . . .

(They exit.)

LEOPOLDO (continues to laugh along with SCARRAFONE.)

Scene 2

Via Toledo, the corner of Ponte di Tappia. Some minutes later. A coatless young man, with a woolen scarf around his neck, is waiting on the sidewalk. He is PASCALINO, the little baker.

LEOPOLDOS CRY: "Coffee for sale! Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise! Leopoldo Coletta is here, ready to serve you. Come get your coffee!" (He enters and stops on the sidewalk.)

PASCALINO: Good evening, Liopo'!

LEOPOLDO (cordially): Good evening, Pascali'!
PASCALINO: Have you seen Rusella?
LEOPOLDO: A minute ago, at the corner of Vico Berio. Oh, you should have been there!
PASCALINO: Why's that?
LEOPOLDO: A gentleman dared to touch your girlfriend, and she really gave it to him!
PASCALINO: Good for her!
LEOPOLDO: Are you waiting for her here?
PASCALINO: Yes. (pause) Leopo', it's cold. Know what you can do? Give me a little cup of dirty water . . .
LEOPOLD0: Dirty water? (He prepares the coffee)


(Sadly, from far off, from the maze of streets of Ponte di Tappia comes the voice of the RAG MAN.)

We were a group of a hundred sixteen beggars;
e ndin ndin mbò . . .

(SCARRAFONE enters with a bundle of newspapers under his arm.)

SCARRAFONE (greeting LEOPOLDO with a hand gesture): Hey, good evening! (Gives his cry) "The Italian! The Tribune! The Rome!"
we drew by twos on a deck of cards to see
e ndin ndin mbà . . .

LEOPOLDO (to the news vendor who is leaving): Hey, Scarrafo'!
LEOPOLDO: Keep to the wall so no one smashes you!
which of us would be the president;
e ndin ndin mbò. . .

LEOPOLDO (giving the coffee to PASCALINO): See if it's good and sugary.
PASCALINO (takes a sip).
If luck held out - it went of course to me!
e ndin ndin mbà!

(The little RAG MAN enters, pale, thin, shoeless, with a tattered coat barely covering his chilled skin; he has a large basket over his right arm and is holding a lantern in his left.)

(Music breaks.)

THE RAG MAN (upon seeing the others, he playfully poses like a statue): The troubadour!
PASCALINO (teasing): Here we go again!
THE RAG MAN (holds up the lantern to look at him): Oh, yeah! Look who's talking. (to LEOPOLDO) Ya get it, Leopoldo? It's always so beautifully satisfying . . .
LEOPOLDO: What's that?
THE RAG MAN: To play the game with one hundred and sixteen beggars and come out president!
LEOPOLDO (sarcastically): President of the Cabinet!
PASCALINO: Imagine how envious everyone is!
THE RAG MAN (scornfully): I'll have to wear a good luck charm against the evil eye! (He sighs.) What can you do! When tight-fisted fortune says no, it's all over!

Look, what a cruel wind blows off the mountain
and comes sweeping down at any minute!
If only I had a little fur coat now,
I'd be sitting pretty, I'd kill this wind!

But tired to death, bare and dead from hunger,
how can I kill this wind, can you tell me?
it'll go just the other way, oh, Lordy:
maybe one day the wind will kill me!

(Music breaks.)

LEOPOLDO: Come here, sit down!
PASCALINO: Warm yourself a little!
THE RAG MAN (sits on his basket near LEOPOLDO's brazier; he rubs his hands, making a wry face): Go on, this is colder than I am!


Meanwhile the deputy and all the guards
make a sweep of the common folk and low life!
Low life? You hear? Than what they call it!
What? That, you should know, is the good life!
Those are the people who eat and who drink,
with carriages, theater, country outings;
with hookers and etcetera etcetera . . .
And that is the bad life? Don't believe it!
The real low life, the one that's authentic,
is the one I lead! This dreadful misery!
This is the low life! And yet the others,
such as are called the "fancy dandies,"
have the satisfaction to get lugged off
to jail; and I, nothing. Oh, well, so goes life!

(PASCALINO and LEOPOLDO break into laughter.)

No, don't laugh, it's nothing to laugh about,
that really is the comfortable life:
because prison is a nice government
employment that they get. It's real soft!
There in rain, or stormy night or thunder,
you have the prisoner's garb to cover you,
soup, a bed, and so forth . . . And finally,
in the summer you can say: "I'm in the cooler!"
because inside there it's really cool,
at that place they call "San Francisco."

(Music breaks.)

PASCALINO: But you've got your freedom and you complain?
THE RAG MAN (suddenly serious): Freedom? You want ta see what freedom looks like? Take a look at freedom! (He stands and turns around, showing his tattered coat that reveals his naked lower back.) See how wonderful freedom is?
PASCALINO (puts a hand on his shoulder.)
THE RAG MAN (sits down again): Damn whoever's the cause of all this!
LEOPOLDO (in a tone half-serious, half-facetious): The blame all goes to the commissioner of street sweepers who has turned the streets of Naples into an arcade and destroyed the tobacco industry!
THE RAG MAN: Exactly! Before Labriola you could find butts like this. (He shows the size with his thumb and forefinger.) Now who gives 'em to you any more? Smokers are economical today and don't toss their butts away like they used to! And then, with the invention of those newfangled cigarette holders they even smoke the ashes! (pause) But this is a wonderful discovery for mankind; and one a' these days we'll all go on strike!
THE RAG MAN: Really?! I'm a man of character! Because I have the courage to walk around a butt seven, eight times, and do nothing! I don't pick it up!
THE RAG MAN (he spies a bottle of anise in LEOPOLDO's basket. To the coffee vendor) Look over there, over there.
LEOPOLDO (turns to look where he is pointing.)
THE RAG MAN (takes the bottle and drinks, then puts the bottle back.)
LEOPOLDO (turns to him questioningly.)
THE RAG MAN (with a gesture of indifference): It's gone, it's gone!
PASCALINO (laughs silently.)
THE RAG MAN (tokes a pipe from his basket, lights it from the lantern, crosses his legs, and smokes.)
PASCALINO: How comfortable you look!
THE RAG MAN (looks at LEOPOLDO and his itinerant shop; and with irony): It might be the Café d'Italia!
LEOPOLDO (facetiously): But what do you need?
THE RAG MAN: What do I need? Everything I don't have! (pause) Besides there I pay for the eats, and here the eats are free. This weather's eating me alive! (Shivers from the cold.) Oh! Someone left the door open! (to LEOPOLDO) . . . Look over there, over there . . .
LEOPOLDO (turns as before; and the other again takes a quick swallow of anise; then, as before, the coffee vendor turns to find out what the RAG MAN was pointing at.)
THE RAG MAN: It's gone, it's gone
PASCALINO (gives a call): Rusella!
RUSELLA (runs in, responding to the call): Goodness! Have you been here long?
PASCALINO: Where have you been?
RUSELLA: Behind the street getting six bundles of couch grass for the coachman! His poor horse was starving!

(The two young people stand aside chatting lovingly and then they slowly exit.)


(The patrol enters, led by BRIGADIER BRIGHELLA who is talking with officer GUARDASCIONE. The police come down from Montecalvario and head for Ponte di Tappia, where they disappear.)
THE RAG MAN (raises his eyes to heaven; sighs):
Another day has dawned right in my face!
And what have I to show for it? Zero!

(He gets up, looks in his basket with a sense of distrust.)

A night of rummaging round Mercato and Vecaria,
did I find a piece of old rag! Not even one!

Fortune, fortune! Stick out your head so I can spit in your face! (Looks at the lantern: it has gone out.)

I had a lantern but it's gone out;
now I'll close up the shop and bon soirée!

And go along home to my one-eyed wife,
who keeps that one eye on me!

LEOPOLDO (ironically): She really lucked out, didn't she!
THE RAG MAN (Taking up the song again):
If fortune ever took care of the poor,
e ndin ndin mbò,
I'd have some food and bottles full of wine
e ndin ndin mbò,
But lady luck had something else in store
e ndin ndin mbò,
and she has made this empty basket mine!
e ndin ndin mbà!

(Reciting, he takes the basket and lets his torn sleeve dangle.)

A sleeve in the Mary Stuart style! (pause)

Now I get it: it's the Eternal Father
who holds the wheel of this world in hand,
and makes it turn like this . . . like this . . .
like this . . .
(He makes a circular gesture forward.)
Sooner or later he gets tired . . . And then swings
it like this . . . like this . . . like this . . .
(He makes a circular gesture backward.)
I'll wait here for . . .
the world to turn a little my way!

(He sighs, looks at the bottle of anise; to LEOPOLDO): Look over there, over there (But this time LEOPOLDO catches him in the act and makes him put the bottle back.)

LEOPOLDO: Oh! Look here! If you don't get outa here . . .
THE RAG MAN (laughs): Hey, excuse me if I've been a little too chummy . . .
LEOPOLDO (quickly): Why do you care? You got the best of it!
THE RAG MAN: A very happy and holy night! (He picks up his lantern and, going away gives his cry:)

Sand and sea,
and a farewell to thee!"

(He exits.)

(Music breaks.)

LEOPOLDO (shouts after him, like a good wish): Keep up your spirits! God helps the cheerful man!

Scene 3

Via Toledo, Commercial Bank building. A few minutes later.

LEOPOLDO'S CRY: "Coffee for sale! Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise! Leopoldo Coletta is here. Ready to serve you! Come get your coffee!"

(PASCALINO and RUSELLA enter arm in arm heading toward San Ferdinando. They stop, overcome by tenderness. LEOPOLDO enters, moving slowly toward the two lovers. )

PASCALINO: . . . How long will it be? February, March, April, and May: another four months and we'll be happy!
RUSELLA (happy): We'll be married in May!
PASCALINO: When the roses are in bloom!
RUSELLA: We'll be married in May!
LEOPOLDO (ironically): When the donkeys bray! (exits)


Rusella mia!
You're my rose:
you're lovely and sweet like a flower!

My Pascalino,
I could die of joy!
In just a few more months I'll be your bride!
But with no dowry.

Who needs a dowry?
You are all the treasure that I need!

Oh, my dearest love,
you speak with such nobility!

It's a lie
that lots of money makes a love more strong!
We're everything we need to start our life,
with health and flowering youth!

It gives me joy to know I'll be your wife.

(The PATROL again crosses the street, going toward the streets of "Sopra i Quartieri.")

PASCALINO: (takes RUSELLA's hands in his. He kisses them).
Here's a secret I'll tell you.
I've started sewing my trousseau.

You're so clever!

But cotton's all I have-no lace or silken embroidery

But beauty is simplicity
Your smile is all the ornament you need!

Oh, my dearest love. You speak with such nobility.

It's a lie
that silk and satin make a love strong!
Love based on wealth and luxury
will not endure!
We have a love that's true,
good and pure!

Oh, my dearest love,
you speak with such nobility!

It's my love for you that gives me this ability
Love, real love, has found my heart.

And only death can make us part.

(They exit.)

(Music breaks.)

Scene 4

"Sopra i Quartieri" Piazzetta of the Trinità degli Spagnoli, with the façade of the church of the same name. A few minutes later.

LEOPOLDO'S CRY: "Coffee for sale! Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise! Leopoldo Coletta is here. Ready to serve you! Come get your coffee!"

(LEOPOLDO enters and stops at the corner of the Street leading to Toledo. He knocks at the door of a street level apartment; a woman in nightclothes opens the door, hands him a copper coffee container that he pours into his own container. The door closes.)

LEOPOLDO (revives the flame of the brazier, stirs the coffee in the container. He is suddenly disturbed.): Wait, there's something in here! (He removes a card from the receptacle.) A two of diamonds! The card that bungler Furmella lost! (He looks at it.) A piece is missing. I don't know if it's still inside . . . or was always like this! (Shrugs his shoulders.) Oh, well! (He continues stirring.)


(A WOMAN'S VOICE is heard. It's the voice of a prostitute who is singing a sad ditty.)

Like a leaf
the wind blows from a tree
that flies from here to there
and then to obscurity,
so I wait
not knowing where I'll go,
but with unhappy heart wondering where
the wind will blow.

(She enters. It is MARGHERITA, dark, with large expressive eyes.)

(Music breaks.)

MARGHERITA (sighing): They wrote that song for me! (Goes up to the coffee vendor.) Liopo', give me a coffee.
LEOPOLDO: Oh, Donna Margheri', how's it going?
MARGHERITA: A little better . . . (She sips the coffee he hands her.)
LEOPOLDO: Any news of Don Peppeniello?
MARGHERITA: I don't know anything . . . It was supposed to be a quick trial. But it's been a year and a half, and it hasn't moved.
LEOPOLDO: The train must be a little slow! (He laughs.)
MARGHERITA (she also laughs, though against her will): Yeah! That express train turned into a local on the way!
LEOPOLDO: But why was he arrested?
MARGHERITA: He lifted a silver crucifix from a shop.
LEOPOLDO (half serious, half joking): Think of that! They send you to prison now for being too good a Catholic! It's hopeless: there's no religion any more!


(INES, called BAMBINELLA, enters. She is no longer young, but her glitzy elegance and the air of superiority with which she shows off make this woman a still attractive street walker.)

(Music breaks.)

INES: Hey, Margari', good t' see ya!
MARGHERITA: Hey, Ines, how ya doing? How's it going?
INES: So so. Not bad! (She lights a cigarette, smokes.)
MARGHERITA: What do you mean! Not bad? You look great!
INES: Oh, well, everyone knows me . . .


The name's Bambinella
I'm very well known in this part of town
dancing all night to the hurdy-gurdy tunes
in the back streets of Napoli.

And if patrols of police should come by
I turn on my heels and away I fly!
If they should catch me and bring me in
It's just a formality.

I might start to flirt
and then I might lift up my skirt,
I can do just as I please
I have all the cops on their knees.

They turn into boys,
and they think of me as a toy,
and just as soon as they have me,
they have to let me go!

(FILIBERTO ESPOSITO enters. He is INES's young protector. Pale, frail, but elegant in his own way, in a very tight pea-green suit, with a white silk scarf around his neck. He approaches his woman, takes the cigarette from her mouth, takes two or three puffs, and gives it back to her.)

FILIBERTO (to LEOPOLDO): Coffee! (LEOPOLDO prepares it.)

There are some people who make me laugh
when they tell me to look out for myself!
I'm making love with the man on top . . .

FILIBERTO (puts his hand to his hat in greeting and smiles): Thanks!

and I spend a lot just to make him look swell.
I'm getting deeper and deeper in debt,
but I'm making money so let it go.
I have a good-looking man beside me . . .

FILIBERTO (pleased, to LEOPOLDO, who hands him the coffee): She exaggerates!

. . . bringing respect to me.
Girls walking by night
need some protection alright

. . . Someone who's strong and who always
knows how to win in a fight!

(Drinks the coffee, finds it bitter; to LEOPOLDO): Sugar! (He bends to take it from the basket, stirring the coffee.)

Nightly-about now
he likes to start up a row!
He beats me up-but he loves me,
and hides it from the world.

(Music breaks.)

FILIBERTO (still finding the coffee bitter he takes more sugar; he bends over to take even more, but LEOPOLDO, annoyed, lifts the basket up to him. FILIBERTO stirs the coffee and throws the spoon roughly in the brazier.)
LEOPOLDO. Look at that! He throws it in the china cabinet!
FILIBERTO (sips, then goes to offer some to INES, who sips it; he finally gives the cup back to LEOPOLDO): Take it, and write down fiftv-three soldi!
LEOPOLDO (annoyed, through his teeth): Oh, it has to reach two thousand before you pay!
FILIBERTO (clicks his tongue in disgust. He bends to take the bottle of anise from LEOPOLDO'S basket and pours some in his mouth. A drop of anise splashes in one eye. Irritated by the burning he gives a kick at LEOPOLDO who protests; then he takes a gulp of anise. Unable to stand it, he spits it into the basket and gives the bottle back to the coffee vendor who swears.)
MARGHERITA (to INES): Want me to give you some advice? Think about yourself!
FILIBERTO (adjusts the front of his jacket haughtily.)
LEOPOLDO (through his teeth, looking at him): Oh, he thinks he's Christ himself!
FILIBERTO (begins to cough.)
INES (turns up the collar of his jacket): See, you do have a little cough! Put your coat on!
FILIBERTO (giving her a shove): When did a tough guy ever wear a coat?

It's been three months now that I've been his nurse,
I've done all that I can to make him well.
Lucky the doctor is hot for me,
so it's cost me nothing for medical care.
They might arrest him-they've got a warrant.

Dead or alive they'll take me away.

Now don't you worry and don't be afraid,
I'll always be here for you!

Go see the brigadier,
tell him what he wants to hear.
And while you're turning your trick
he'll make his escape on the quick.

When he holds me tight
and makes love to me through the night
then I am happy to do
all his dirty work for him!

(She embraces FILIBERTO who continues to cough.)

(Music breaks.)

MARGHERITA (comes up to LEOPOLDO): How much do I owe you?

LEOPOLDO: One for the coffee, and twelve for the cigarettes: thirteen soldi.
MARGHERITA (hands him the money): Give me change for a lira.
LEOPOLDO: Right away! (He digs in his pocket for the change.)
MARGHERITA: (looking left, gives a shout): The cops!

(She runs toward Largo delle Baracche.)

LEOPOLDO: I've lost another thirteen soldi! (He goes away, crying out in a cursing tone.) "Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise! Leopoldo Coletta is here. Ready to serve you. Come get your coffee!" (He turns toward Via Speranzella.)
FILIBERTO (in the meanwhile has given INES his gun.)
INES (hides it under her dress. The PATROL enters).
FILIBERTO (greeting the brigadier jokingly): Distinguished Signor Brighella!
BRIGH ELLA: Oh? (with a little smile) Do you know me?
INES: Well, naturally . . .
GUARDASCIONE: Pst. Quiet, you!
FILIBERTO: (gives his lover a dirty look.)
BRIGHELLA (to FILIBERTO): What are you doing out so late?
FILIBERTO (smiling): You see, she suffers from asthma. I'm having my wife take a little air. (He introduces her.)
INES: Yes sir, I'm his . . .
FILIBERTO: (to INES, harshly): Shut up! (pause) What do you want a protector for-just to waste money? (He asks her with a furtive gesture about the gun. She reassures him.)
BRIGHELLA (he has taken a notebook and pencil from his pocket): Identification.
FILIBERTO: (hesitates).
INES (under her breath): Tell him your name!
BRIGHELLA: What is your name?
FILIBERTO: Filiberto Esposito.
BRIGHELLA (writes it down).
FILIBERTO: . . . Known as "The Nice Guy."
BRIGHELLA: I asked you your name.
FILIBERTO: Filiberto Esposito.
FILIBERTO: . . . Known as "The Nice Guy."
BRIGHELLA (impatiently): That will do! (pause) I don't want to know if you're a nice guy or not! (quietly to GUARDASCIONE) Do you know him?
GUARDASCIONE (shakes his head no.)
BRIGHELLA (writes something else in his notebook).
FILIBERTO (whispers to INES): The gun?
INES (in a whisper): It's underneath . . .
BRIGHELLA: . . . Age?
FILIBERTO (reflects).
BRIGHELLA: Age? (pause) Look, how old are you?
FILIBERTO Twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty-seven.
BRIGHELLA (sarcastically): Sure! Twenty eight, twenty-nine . . .(hard) Can you tell me how old you are?
FILIBERTO: Oh, hold on, I know I'm two years younger than my sister Matalena, who's the first. She must be . . . How old can she be?
BRIGHELLA: You want me to tell you?
FILIBERTO (calculates): . . . She was thirteen when she left home . . . Then eight years as a hooker, and that makes twenty-one . . . Two in the slammer and that makes twenty-three . . . Five years with a street sweeper and that makes twenty-eight . . . Then, for me, make it twenty-six.
BRIGHELLA (ironically): "Make it twenty-six." (Writes it.) Your father?
FILIBERTO (asks INES again about the gun with a quick look).
BRIGHELLA: Hey! Your old man?
FILIBERTO: You do it.
BRIGHELLA: God! "You do it"?! (to GUARDASCIONE) Unknown (He writes.) Your mother?
INES: Oh, his mother, sir, was a martyr: she died in prison . . .
FILIBERTO (irritated, to the woman): Now I'm cutting out! Then you won't have me to represent you!
BRIGHELLA (to GUARDASCIONE) Did you get that? "Father unknown, mother died in prison . . . " An exemplary family. (He smiles, then to FILIBERTO.) How do you support yourself?
FILIBERTO: I work for myself. My wife . . .
BRIGHELLA: Your wife supports you?
FILIBERTO: My wife can testify . . .
INES (ready to speak.)
BRIGHELLA: I'm not interested. (pause) Then what's your line of work . . .
FILIBERTO: I work just like you work . . .
BRIGHELLA (impatiently): What do you do?
FILIBERTO: I'm a salesman.
BRIGHELLA: What kind of work? What do you sell?
FILIBERTO: I sell whatever comes along; I take it and I sell it.
BRIGHELLA: . . . But are you with a firm, with a house? What company are you with?
FILIBERTO: . . . It's a private house, not a firm. A small house . . .
BRIGHELLA: I get it, I get it . . .(pause) And you say you're a salesman?
BRIGHELLA: What do you represent?
INES (giving him a shove): Hey!
FILIBERTO: . . . Do I know what I represent?
BRIGHELLA: I know! (He writes.) Address?
FILIBERTO (pointing to his suit): Only this.
BRIGHELLA: Address . . .
FILIBERTO: I told you: only this. Isn't it good enough?
BRIGHELLA (raising his voice): Where do you live?
FILIBERTO: Oh?! (as though to say: now 1 understand) Largo delle Baracche.
FILIBERTO: It's the only door on the block.
BRIGHELLA (finishes writing and puts the notebook bock in his pocket): All right! Tomorrow we'll check to see if the information is correct or not.
INES: No, sir, that's the pure and holy truth.

FILIBERTO: No, let her talk, she's not lying. And besides I have my surveillance paper here, where you can . . . (He takes it from the inner pocket of his jacket, looks at it rapidly.) No, this is the expired one.
INES (irritated with FILIBERTO): You haven't had it renewed yet?
FILIBERTO: I haven't had time!
BRIGHELLA: Oh, yeah? You're under police surveillance and you're on the street at this hour?
FILIBERTO: I have a special permit from the officer in charge.
BRIGHELLA: Give it here! (He takes the document and makes a sign for GUARDASCIONE to search FILIBERTO, then he reads.)
GUARDASCIONE (rapidly searches FILIBERTO.)
FILIBERTO (cannot stand still. He laughs and crouches with the officer when he bends over to feel his legs.)
GUARDASCIONE (repeats the search; the other laughs louder, suddenly crouching): Hey! (The officer is annoyed.) Do you have to act up?
FILIBERTO: But I'm ticklish. . .
INES: Take it easy . . .
GUARDASCIONE (with pungent irony): Don't worry. I won't wear out your Nice Guy! (to BRIGHELLA) Nothing!
BRIGHELLA (gives the document back to FILIBERTO with a hard look).
FILIBERTO (lifts his hat): Anything else?
BRIGHELLA (goes off without answering, at the head of the patrol.)
FILIBERTO (covertly watches the officers in the distance, then gestures to INES to give him the gun.)
INES (raises her dress and gives him the weapon.)
FILIBERTO (puts a cigarette in his mouth)

(In the meantime a man wrapped in a cloak has entered. INES goes up to him plying her trade, while FILIBERTO goes to one side and lights the cigarette. Then INES and the MAN go away arm in arm toward Via Speranzella. FILIBERTO, with an ironic little smile, throws away the match and goes out the opposite way.)

(Music breaks.)

Scene 5

Via Toledo, corner of Vico Rotto San Carlo, with a view of Piazza San Ferdinando in the background. A little while later. LEOPOLDO has stopped on the sidewalk at left, under the luminous "II Mattino" sign.

LEOPOLDO (gives his cry): "Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise!" (Enter MIMÌ, café waitress, in a worn tuxedo jacket and package under her arm.)

MIMÌ: Hey, God bless, Liopo'!
LEOPOLDO (cordially): Hey, Mimì, let God do it? Where are you working?
MIMÌ: The Gran Café d'Europa on Pertusillo Lane!
LEOPOLDO: Oh?! (TUMMASINO enters. He looks around impatiently.)
TUMMASINO: She's not here!(He exits.)
MIMÌ: Yes, but I'm leaving tomorrow! You know what I earned as head waitress? Thirteen soldi!
LEOPOLD0: And you're complaining?
MIMÌ: No, I'm dancing! You really picked the right job!
LEOPOLDO: What are you talking about?! More people don't pay me than do! (TUMMASINO comes in again and goes to LEOPOLDO.)
TUMMASINO: Gimme another cigarette. Three soldi and two are five.
LEOPOLDO (quietly to MIMÌ) See? See? See? See? (gives the cigarette to TUMMASINO.) Here you are, sir.

(TUMMASINO lights the cigarette and puffs hard. MARGHERITA enters and goes over to LEOPOLDO.)

MARGHERITA: Liopo', take this money . . . (lifts her skirt to take some change from her stocking)
TUMMASIN0 (surprised, calls her): Margari'!
MARGHERITA (gaily) Hey! Tummasi'! You're out of jail?
TUMMASINO: . . . Listen . . .
MARGHERITA: Wait, I have to give thirteen soldi to Leopoldo.
TUMMASINO: Never mind . . .
MARGHERITA: What do you mean?
TUMMASINO: Never mind! (to LEOPOLDO) Put it on my account!
LEOPOLDO: God's will be done!
MARGHERITA (to LEOPOLDO): We're even! (and she begins to talk in a lively way with TUMMASINO)
MIMÌ (to LEOPOLDO, laughing): You have such nice customers!
MARGHERITA: Oh! Forget about her! She's in love with Filiberto now!
TUMMASINO: Filiberto? (pause) But is he a moneymaker?!
MARGHERITA: What can I tell you? All I know is that Ines is ahead one hundred percent by being with him, and, you know . . . she loves him!
TUMMASINO: Oh, yeah? (They talk.)
MIMÌ: Well, be good, Liopo'.
LEOPOLDO: You going home?
MIMÌ: What can I do? I'm dead tired. On my feet since early morning! I'm going to retire!
MIMÌ (jokingly): . . . I'm going to bed. (exits)
TUMMASINO (to MARGHERITA): Listen, I want to talk to her . . .
MARGHERITA: What do you want to do? Why do you want to make a fool of yourself?
TUMMASINO (with a sardonic laugh): Filiberto? (swaggers) The guy ain't born yet who can make a fool outa me. (pause) Go tell her I want to see her!
MARGHERITA: If I find her . . .
TUMMASINO: Find her! I'll be on Toledo!

(NICOLA, the night watchman, enters with his mastiff Leone. He begins checking the shop doors.)

NICOLA (speaking to his dog): Lio', your master's pride and joy, did you understand me good? While I'm checking the shops on Toledo, you be busy doing something else. Look at me: you go down to San Giacomo and, with the excuse that you're sniffing the ground, investigate the city hall square. Then pretend to be lost and turn onto Guantare Street. And if you see someone suspicious, run tell me!
TUMMASINO (patting the dog as it leaves): He even knows what time it is!
LEOPOLDO: What an intelligent animal, Don Nico'!
NICOLA (flattered): Oh, not to knock him, but he can't talk!
LEOPOLDO: What does that matter? He's your dog; that's enough!


(A carriage with the top down enters. GNAZIO, the coachman - ruddy complexioned, a sly little old fox - is in the seat.)

GNAZIO: Ho! (The nag stops. The Coachman gets out and invites a couple of lovers to descend: MARIO and FLORA.)
MARIO (strikes a match and reads the carriage meter): Three and sixty! (becoming angry) How can that be? A four lire supplement?!
GNAZIO: Why not? Did you expect to pay less than four lire for a room by the sea?!

(Music breaks.)

MARIO (restrained by FLORA): That's indecent!
GNAZIO: Indecent? Indecent is what you did!
MARIO (gives him the money and exits indignantly with FLORA.)
GNAZIO (looking at the money): Five lire? For using my carriage for a hotel!
NICOLA (to GNAZIO): Why are you always grousing?
TUMMASINO: You should be a coachman.
GNAZIO: Yeah. And see if we aren't always in the wrong!


A signorina came up to me:
"Coachman! Hurry! Quick! To the station!"
"It's a good thing," I said to myself,
"I've fallen into a bit of luck!"

(Pretends to get into the seat and urge the horse on.)

"Hah Hah!" Nothing!

What is it?

What happened?

He doesn't want to go?

No sir!
"Hah! Hah! Hah!"

(Pretends to tickle the horse with the handle of the whip.)

What did you do?

A little
tickle under his belly!
"Hah! Hah!"

(Gives the impression that the carriaqe is moving, and he imitates the worried voice of the passenger.)

"Hurry! Or you'll make me miss
the fast train at twenty past three!
Hurry! Hurry! Because we have only
fifteen minutes to spare!"
"Where do you have to go?"
"To Rome."
"Oh, but there's still the train
that leaves for Rome tomorrow morning . . ."
Are you crazy? Pull up now! Pull up now!
Let me out of here!"
"That's impossible!
This animal can't make stops just because
someone has an inspiration!"
"Hurry! Hurry! tomorrow morning
I have to, want to, must be in Rome!"
"So, Signorina, why don't we go
to Rome in my ever-ready carriage?!"

TUMMASIN0 (breaks into laughter):
Oh, that's really incredible!
That horse of yours could never make it!

What, "Not make it?" You know what you're saying?
That horse went from Porta Capuana
to the station in one fell swoop - nonstop!

(The OTHERS laugh.)

And after that, then what happened?

GNAZI0: And after that, I; "Hah! Hah! Hah!"

(Pretends to set off at a trot; again takes up the voice of the passenger).

"Hurry! We've only got six minutes!"
"I'm going as fast as I can!"
"Stop trying to put something over on me,
whip your horse to make it go faster!"
"What? Whip it? For heaven's sake, signori' . . .
Treat this beauty bad and most likely you'll
not make the day after tomorrow train!
But you can count on one thing, Miss,
if this train should happen to pull out
of the station a couple of hours late
we'll make it for sure . . ."

Oh, what trouble she had to go through,
that pitiful signora!

And all at once: "Mario! Mario!
Hold it! Pull up! Stop now!"

(Pretends to stop abruptly at the command.)


(Music breaks.)

GNAZIO: (imitates MARIO'S affected voice) "Flora, like this! Leaving?" "Yes, because my husband Cornelio is waiting in Rome!" "Let him wait, stay with me tonight." "Ah, dear fool, what are you making me do?" "What you've always done!" "Well, climb up, get on, coward!" "Hurry, coachman, turn at Santa Lucia; and then, up to Posillipo, at a gallop!
LEOPOLDO: At a gallop?!
GNAZIO: It's a manner of speaking! (imitates MARIO'S voice) "Hurry, raise the top!" (to those present) Understand?
TUMMASINO: Oh, well, what can you do? It's all part of your business!
GNAZIO: And then, I . . . "At once, sir"! (Describes the raising of the top; then he pretends to climb into his seat, to look inside at the two lovers embracing; and then, with an almost spiteful expression, imitates the way he made the additional charge on the meter.)
NICOLA (surprised): That is all extra?
GNAZIO: Eh! (As if to say: Exactly. He pretends to move an with the horse) "Hah!"


GNAZIO: "Hah!" (Pretends to trot. Then turns, showing that the two inside are hugging and kissing.) "Hah!" (Pretends to urge on the horse.) "Hah!" (Repeats this several times, with increasing emphasis to show what is going on inside the coach. . . In the end, as though stopping the horse, and as though speaking to MARIO) "Well, sir did you make it or not?" (imitating MARIO'S voice) "No, take us back to Via Toledo . . ." Well, I come here and he puts four lire in my hand! Go to hell, you and your mother! (The others break into laughter. Then a small mixed choir of happy voices is heard. They are prostitutes and free-livers.)

The night is silent-it's cold but you don't feel it,
when there's a willing woman by your side . . .
The streets are dead, but we have come to life.
While others sleep we're masters of the town.
And with the sunrise,
we'll abdicate to workers unenlightened,
but we'll be back when they are sleeping.
Back to our streets and to the pleasures of the night.
The night is silent-It's cold but you don't feel it . . . no.

(The group enters. The prostitutes are PIERRETTE, GEORGETTE, and FERNANDA; the free-livers, GASTONE, FRITZ, and EDGARDO.)

(Music breaks.)

GNAZIO (at attention): Gentlemen, do you want a carriage?
GEORGETTE (to GASTONE): What should we do? Go home?
GASTONE: Whatever you want!
PIERRETTE: No, let's go to our bar, the "Caffettuccio"!
EDGARDO: Who wants to wander around all night. Let's go to bed!
FRITZ: Uh, are we chickens, going to bed at this hour?
PIERRETTE: It's really not chic to go to bed at three!
GNAZIO (to LEOPOLDO and NICOLA): That's why we stay up all night.
FERNANDA: Let's go, so we can have a coffee!
GEORGETTE: Yes, yes, let's go to the "Caffettuccio."
GNAZIO: Miss. . . (He winks at GEORGETTE, pointing to LEOPOLDO.)
GEORGETTE (equivocating, offended): You bastard, how dare you . . .
GNAZIO: What do you think I meant? I was pointing out the coffee vendor. . .
LEOPOLDO: Sir, do you want a really good cup of coffee?
FRITZ: Well?
LEO POLDO: Then get one here.
FRITZ: Yuk! (makes a gesture of disgust)
GASTONE: He wanted to sell us coffee earlier . . .
FRITZ: We'd be dead by now . . .
GNAZIO: No, sir: this is really a good cup of coffee: it's cleansing! (He laughs.)
GEORGETTE: Well, let's make up our minds!
GASTONE: It's all the same to me, let's go. Anyway, I get up at eight in the evening . . .
EDGARDO: That's fine for you, but the cock crows in the morning for me. I have to be up by noon. If the bar was nearby . . . but to go as far as Piazza Vittoria!
FERNANDA: Let's take carriages . . .
EDOARDO: But there's only one.
GNAZIO: Don't worry, we'll make only one trip. The horse is up to it.
PIERRETTE: And where will we sit?
PIERRETTE (laughing): Where will we sit?
GNAZIO (to LEOPOLDO, enticed): . . . Keep quiet: she's all excited. She's lost her head.
LEOPOLDO (giving him a shove): Are you going or not?
GNAZIO: Look, sir. You'll be comfortable: four inside and two on the driver's seat.
TUMMASINO: And where will you sit?
GNAZIO: On the horse! (He laughs.)
LEOPOLDO: And then it'll take a couple of oxen to pull it!
NICOLA: Sir, if my dog was here, he could go call a couple of carriages for you!
TUMMASINO (joking): No, if the watchman's dog was here, he could carry you on his back!
GNAZIO (mocking): No, if the dog was here, he would make four cups of espresso all by himself!
PIERRETTE (to EDGARDO): Oh, well, let's go home! Anyway, it's clear that as long as I'm with you, I'm out of circulation.
GNAZIO: Shall we go, sir?
FERNANDA (to PIERRETTE and EDGARDO): Yes, you take the carriage, we want to walk a little bit more!
PIERRETTE (looking the nag over): Tell me, does this horse go?
GNAZIO: Go? This is an airplane!
FRITZ: In fact, you can see his wings
GNAZIO: No, sir, those are the animal's ears!
GEORGETTE (to PIERRETTE and EDGARDO): We wish you good night!
PIERRETTE: And we wish you good fun!
GASTONE: Ah, no, no. The good wishes go the other way around. Good night to us and good fun to you . . .
EDGARDO: No, I wish myself good sleep!
GNAZIO (has looked at the horse closely; he seems discouraged.)
PIERRETTE: Tell me, what's the matter?
GNAZIO: The horse is stuck to the ground!
NICOLA: He's starving!
GNAZIO: He always does this to me, the bastard! He's an obstructionist! (looks at the nag's belly) What can I do now? Damn!
EDGARDO: What's wrong?
GNAZIO: The girth-strap is broken! (The men laugh.) Miss! (to PIERRETTE) Do you have a piece of string?
PIERRETTE: Not likely!
GNAZIO: (to GASTONE) A belt?
GASTONE: I'm wearing suspenders.
GNAZIO: A shoe lace?
FRITZ: Come on.
GNAZI0 (to LEOPOLDO, alluding to the gentlemen): They don't have anything! I don't know what kind of gentry they are!

(He takes his belt from his trousers, and tries to fix the strap on the horse's belly.)

FERNANDA (laughing): We're off to a good start!
FRITZ: Eddie, now I understand; we'll get to bed before you!
PIERRETTE: Goodbye, Fernanda, Goodbye, Georgette . . . (She climbs into the carriage.)
GEORGETTE: May the Madonna protect you!
EDGARDO: We're going on a long journey! (He climbs into the carriage.)
GASTONE: Eddie, write me when you get there!

GNAZIO: (occupied with seeing the two passengers into the carriage, wants to call EDGARDO, who is laughing with PIERRETTE; turns to the men) Can he write?
LEOPOLDO (ironically): No, he's always wrong!
GASTONE: Edgardo!
GNAZIO: Don Edgardo!
EDGARDO: What is it?
GNAZIO: Why did you get on? (to the others) Huh, he's getting on! (to EDGARDO) Come on down, go up front, and pull on the horse's halter a little . . . (He pushes the carriage, but without result.) What's the young lady's name?
FERNANDA: Pierrette.
GNAZIO: Miss Piertit . . . (They all laugh.) You come down and pull, too! "Hah! Hah!" (to LEOPOLDO) He does it to be mean . . . (He pretends to beat the horse; then to the men.) Gentlemen, please help push from behind!
GASTONE (laughing with the others): Are you crazy?
TUMMASINO: Wait, I'll give you a hand . . .
GNAZIO: Once he gets started he'll keep going . . .
TUMMASINO (pushes the carriage, helped by NICOLA and LEOPOLDO) So! So!
GNAZIO (gets into the driver's seat. Cracks the whip, takes the reins.) Hah! (The horse moves, the carriage finally leaves.)


(The men wave goodbye to EDGARDO and PIERRETTE with great flourishes, then exit singing.)

The night is silent . . .

(Music breaks.)

Scene 6

Via Toledo, corner of Via Corsa. A little later.

LEOPOLDO: "Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise!" (NICOLA is heard whistling for his dog. Silence. NICOLA enters. He is very nervous.)
NICOLA: That idiot! He's probably broken his leg on the way back!
NICOLA: Leone! Who knows what he's doing? He's reading the signs over the stores . . .
LEOPOLDO: But why ever, what grade's he in at school? (He laughs.)
NICOLA: Don't be a fool! (panting, as if he was talking to the dog) Hell, I'm not going to wait for you! (pause) Leopo', do me a favor, when he comes, tell him that in half an hour I'll be waiting on Piazza Dante. If he wants to go home, I've left the key in the usual place. He knows where it is! (He exits.)
LEOPOLDO (shouting after him, with sarcasm): Shall I tell him to fix dinner, too?! Should I have him put the wine to cool?!
NICOLA'S VOICE: You're always kidding! (Silence. INES is heard singing.)


Love, everlasting love - don't you believe it.
No, don't believe a word the bastards tell you,
'cause ev'ry one of them, they will deceive you.
Men have a hundred lies, a thousand hearts.
Women are trusting souls, they live for love.
They fall for ev'ry lie, blind with "amore."
But then he breaks her heart and she suffers,
when the ingrate don't love her anymore!

(TUMMASINO enters and waits, with an expression of evil joy)

INES (appears, starts to cross the street; stops, surprised): Tummasino!
TUMMASINO: Finally (pause). Can we offer you a cup of coffee?
LEOPOLDO (to himself): Oh, Christ!
INES: Thanks, don't go to any trouble.
TUMMASINO: A spot of anise?
LEOPOLDO: Don Tummasi', make yourself at home! (to himself) Then, with the excuse he doesn't have change, he won't pay me!
TUMMASINO (to INES, insisting): What do you say?
INES: Anise warms me up.
TUMMASINO: Would you like a pack of cigarettes?
LEOPOLDO: Okay! (decided) That does it! (Takes his things and goes away.) "Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise! Leopoldo Coletta is here. Ready to serve you. Come get your coffee!" (exits)


Oh, lord, yes, it's made me very happy
that you have found yourse!f another lover!
Do me one favor and keep it to yourself
so I won't have to save face with the neighbors,
by cutting you to pieces with my knife.

And just you try it! You know prison's nasty,
Why would you go throw away your freedom?

And what do I care? For a man to be a man
he's got to look out for himself Every man for himself.

And in no time flat I'll find another lover:
I've fifty women waiting in reserve.
One is a beauty and one is fascinating;
and each of them just wants to be my servant,
to have the thrill of being near to me!
So many women! I can't help it I'm so handsome.
You're not leaving? It's your loss!
Just turn the corner and I'll give a little wink
and watch the girls fall at n9feer like a deck of cards.

Oh-one more thing-that silk scarf that I gave you -
you'll have to give it back (it cost three lire!).
It's not a thing a gentleman would ask
but if I don't the neighbors will he asking
"How come you let Ines keep all your gifts?"
And while we're at it, you have six berets of mine
and a bottle of brilliantine!
It's really not nice, but then nothing lasts forever -
Haven't paid for them yet!?

(Music breaks.)

INES: You'll get back everything.
TUMMASINO: All right. (pause) However, never let it be said that Tummasino the millionaire will stand for this insult! Because he won't!
INES (startled): Hey! Oh! Will you stand for it or won't you? You're just making a big noise because you found me alone . . . But if Filiberto was here you wouldn't dare talk like that!
TUMMASINO: Who's this Filiberto? I'm going home to get my Browning, and then I'll be back!
INES: And hurry back to Largo delle Barracche where you can talk to him!
TUMMASINO: I'll talk to him, to you, to the bandit Musulline, to the statue of Garibaldi! But who is he? (He goes away gesturing.)
INES (shrugs her shoulders and exits).

Scene 7

"Sopra i Quartieri," Largo delle Baracche. INES is waiting, smoking impatiently Light filters through from the doors of the indistinct houses. The cry of LEOPOLDO is heard.

LEOPOLDO'S CRY: "Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum and anise!"
INES: Filibe'!
FILIBERTO (enters in high spirits): Ines, I'm so happy . . . !
INES: Oh! happy! Tummasino is out of prison!
FILIBERTO: Who's Tummasino? (scornfu) Tummasino! Too bad for him! He gets out of prison to go to the hospital! Funny!
INES: What happened?
FILIBERTO: I met my lawyer. And know what he said? Funny! I've been put on notice!
INES (remains indifferent.)
FILIBERTO: Don't you understand? My career! At twenty-six, already given warning! I'm five years ahead. And at this rate, at twenty-nine, thirty . . . house arrest: accelerated course!
INES (with slight disappointment): But you're already under police surveillance, what do you care about the warning?
FILIBERTO: I can see you're an ignoramus. The warning is official confirmation of the danger of an individual. It's like a technical license. Besides, could I refuse the thoughtfulness of the police commissioner? (He kisses her.) Now, go call your friends so we'll have lots of people to celebrate my promotion. We have to drink a toast!
INES (calling) Mari'! Filume'! Cuncetti'! Margari'! Cristi'! (Different doors suddenly open and the STREET WALKERS come out.)
MARGHERITA: What's going on?
INES (explains the significance of the "ceremony" to her friends. LEOPOLDO enters).
LEOPOLDO (gives his cry): "Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum, and anise."
FILIBERTO: Leopo', stay right there!


FILIBERTO: (announces) My friends!

(FILIBERTO's friends enter in their racketeers' attire.)

THE FRIENDS (removing their hats) : Good evening! Greetings, Filibo'!
FILIBERTO (to INES, showing off): See how many came for me?!

(Takes off his hat.)

THE FRIENDS (take off their hats again.)
FILIBERTO (introduces the women and men): Don Aitano, the Consumptive. My better half. Affunzino, the Stutterer. Maria the Nuisance. Peppino Sfaticato. Papele Mariuolo. Cristina, the Minor. Fatso. Margherita. Titina.
AITANO (bowing to MARGHERITA): I already know Margherita. I have a weakness for her.

(Shakes her hand gallantly. Pause.)

AFFUNZINO: What an honor! Tonight is truly a gathering of the finest fl-flowers of-of-of the weaker a-and the stronger sex!
LEOPOLDO (aside, heavily sarcastic): Honesty and hard work!
TUMMASINO (enters, taking off his hat): Gentlemen of the court!
AFFUNZINO (effusive, while the others tip their hats): Distinguished Don Tummasino!
MARGHERITA (quietly to INES, who trembles at the sight of Call him over . . . TUMMASINO) (Pointing at FILIBERTO.)
INES (angrily): Why not? Tummasino should be taught a lesson!
FILIBERTO (to INES): What's going on?
INES (feigning): Nothing.
FILlBERTO (gives her the gun): Here!
INES (hides it in her blouse.)
AFFUNZINO (pointing out TUMMASINO to FILIBERTO): You . . . Do you know each other?
FILIBERTO: It hasn't been my good fortune.
AFFUNZIN0 (introducing the two men who look at each other coldly): Fi-Filiberto Esposito. Tu-Tu-Tu. . . Tummasino the millionaire!
LEOPOLDO (aside): He owes me eighteen soldi!
FILIBERTO: I am so happy to meet you.
TUMMASINO: And I'm happy many times over!

(They shake hands.)

AFFUNZINO (pointing at Filiberto): He's just been pu-put on notice.
TUMMASINO: This promotion is something to celebrate, and if your friends will allow me I'd like to do the honors . . .
FILIBERTO: But look, don't go to any trouble . . .
TUMMASINO: It's the least I can do . . .
FILIBERTO: (gestures as though insisting.)
TUMMASINO (with a superior air): Liopo', coffee for everyone!

(The men tip their hats as a sign of thanks.)

LEOPOLDO (as though the roof had caved in): May you all drop dead!

(He begins preparations half-heartedly.)

FILIBERTO (to INES. aside, pointing at TUMMASINO who is circulating among the group of men and women): Have you ever seen anyone so polite?
INES: Forget it, that's Tummasino!
FILIBERTO (looks ferocious.)
MARGHERITA (to herself): Oh, God!
FILIBERTO (to INES): Is that him . . .?
INES: That's him!
FILIBERTO (takes a tough-guy stance, goes up to the men and declares) No coffee for me!

(And returns beside INES and MARGHERITA.)

AFFUNZINO: N-no coffee for anyone!
LEOPOLDO (who is about to pour the first two cups, starts with joy): Ah! It's a miracle!
TUMMASINO (leaves the group and comes with a menacing air toward FILIBERTO.)
MARGHERITA (to herself): Here we go!
TUMMASIN0 (to FILIBERTO, with a little smile): Listen, a little earlier I offered you coffee, you didn't want it. I say . . . I say . . . why?

(And he turns to talk to the men.)

FILIBERTO (dumbfounded, to INES): Listen, basically, he is saying . . . "You didn't want it. Why?" What do you think?

INES (egging him on): Go on, tell him!
FILIBERTO (aloud, boldly remaining, however, near the two women): Because coffee makes me nervous!

(Turns his back to TUMMASINO who makes an angry gesture.)

TUMMASINO: Oh, yeah? All right!

(He talks animatedly with the others, going upstage.)

FILIBERTO (to INES): Where'd he go?
INES: He's right behind you. Now he's coming to grab you . . .
FILIBERTO: Me? What for? He's threatening me?
INES: Be brave!
FILIBERTO: I'll cut his face up now right and left.
TUMMASIN0 (comes forward with a fierce frown.)
FILIBERTO (goes up to meet him face to face.)
LEOPOLDO: Now we're going to have a cock fight.
FILIBERTO: Go on, you speak.
TUMMASINO: You speak.
TUMMASINO: Go on! I'm used to being spoken to before I speak.
FILIBERTO: I've always let speak, and then I spoke about what was said.
TUMMASINO (impatient): Speak.
FILBERTO: Speak. You speak, I say.
TUMMASINO: Really, I have nothing to speak about.
FILIBERTO: Neither do I!
TUMMASINO (between his teeth, in a huff): You're worthless!

(He returns to the others.)

(Music breaks.)

FILIBERTO (to INES): I mortified him. . . How did it seem to you?
INES: . . . You were a little weak!
FILIBERTO: . . . But does he have to insult me. . . Did he insult me?
AFFUNZINO (in a loud voice): Well, here, my sirs, the incident is closed!
FILIBERTO: What incident? Amongst ourselves . . .
TUMMASINO: Don't stand on ceremony, whatever you want . . . (He points to LEOPOLDO.)
LEOPOLDO (annoyed): Oh, here we go again!
INES (very nervous): Thanks, thanks.
FILIBERTO: Thanks, don't go to any trouble.
TUMMASINO (looking him in the eye, with ill-disguised challenge): At your service. (And he turns his back.)
INES (to FILIBERTO, crossly): See what proud words he uses? Go on!
FILIBERTO (again acts the tough; to AFFUNZINO, alluding to TUMMASINO): Did he insult me?
FILIBERTO (turns to the women): . . . He didn't insult me yet!
INES (annoyed): Yeah! (Enter the ORGAN GRINDER, dragging the instrument by the handles, like a donkey.)
AFFUNZINO (to the group): Well, here's the organ grinder! (to the man) Professor, play a waltz.


(The ORGAN GRINDER starts playing the instrument with a crank. The couples begin to dance. FILIBERTO asks MARGHERITA to dance)

LEOPOLDO (gives his cry): "Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum, and anise! Leopoldo Coletta is here. Ready to serve you."
TUMMASINO (going up to INES): May we have the honor of this dance?
INES: You have to get Filiberto's permission!
TUMMASINO (violently): Filiberto's not worth the bother! (grabs the woman and makes her dance)
INES (manages to free herself from his grasp. She is very upset. Grabs FILIBERTO by his arm.) Did you hear that? Tummasino said you aren't worth the bother!
FILIBERTO: . . . Did be insult me?
INES (through her teeth): And how! He wanted to dance with me without asking you first!
FILIBERTO (cocky): Silence!

(Music breaks.)

(The couples stop.)

FILIBERTO (to TUMMASINO): Friend, one moment, please. (The party divides into two groups: on one side TUMMASINO and the men, on the other FILIBERTO and the women.)
LEOPOLDO (worried): Now all hell is about to break loose!
FILIBERTO (in the tone of one wanting to make an announcement): Listen . . . Not to take away from a good friend here with us, who has done time . . . (He points to AFFUNZINO.)
AFFUNZINO: Please, after you . . . (Tips his hat.)
FILIBERTO: . . . I did twelve years in the slammer. (The men make gestures of interest, and listen carefully) . . . Therefore, you'll be frank, I'll be frank. We are two franks.
LEOPOLDO (sarcastically aside): Even fewer, even fewer . . .
FILIBERTO (loudly): . . . Which . . .
TUMMASINO (turns to the fellows): What's he talking about?
FILIBERTO: . . . I'm obliged to point out that you have committed an indelicate act of enormous gravity, and I . . . (He rushes forward with hands raised.)
TUMMASINO: But what . . . (He is also prepared to rush forward, but the friends restrain him.)
FILIBERTO (stepping backward, pushing INES and MARGHERlTA forward, then, seeing his rival calm down, takes up his previous position, forcing his way among the women.) Get outa the way! (And acts as though he wants to slap them. He feels around; to INES.) . . . I don't have my gun, how can I protect myself?!
INES (gives him the gun).
FILIBERTO (puts it in his vest pocket, with the handle carefully showing; he goes boldly forward, as though to launch a bloody offensive against his adversary): . . . Consequently . . .
TUMMASINO (quivers with fury).
AITANO: Easy does it . . . (He takes hold of him.)
TUMMASINO: But he insulted me . . .
AFFUNZINO: Wha'd he say?
TUMMASINO: What? He called me a "cons queen."
FILIBERTO: Consequently, before dancing with my woman . . . (takes off his hat; and orders) Caps!. And hats! (All the men remove their hats.)
LEOPOLDO (aside, mocking): The Holy Saints are passing by!
FILIBERTO: . . . You should have had the decency to ask her manager; because, if you don't know it, this woman (points to INES) is an agent of my business concern. And you, instead of considering me worthy of every regard, have tried my patience, and I'm going to break your . . . (threatens again)
TUMMASINO: What's with you . . . (He starts forward, is restrained.)
FILIBERTO (returns to hide behind INES and MARGHERITA; and then comes rapidly forward again, as if he wanted to tear free from their hold. He seems wild.) Get outa the way! Get outa the way or I'll start with you! (Arranges the gun in his pocket, with the barrel pointing upward.)
LEOPOLDO: (aside): He has positioned the anti-aircraft artillery!
INES (in a fury, to FILIBERTO): Well, when . . . ?!
FILIBERTO: . . . To summarize . . .
TUMMASINO: Oh, I've had it! (throws himself at FILIBERTO)
A WOMAN'S SHOUT (suddenly): The cops!


(The ORGAN GRINDER begins to play again. The couples join and start to dance. FILIBERTO hides the gun between his legs and dances as well as he can with INES. AFFUNZINO throws his weapon into LEOPOLDO's basket, who protests. The others follow suit.)

AFFUNZINO: Take care of these! (that is, the guns.)
AFFUNZINO: Take care of these!

(The dance starts up again. BRIGHELLA, GUARDASCIONE. and the other officers of the patrol enter. The women, excited by the waltz, surround the officers, trying to force them to dance.)

LEOPOLDO (tries to slink away; gives his cry): "Coffee, cigars, cigarettes, rum, and anise!" (But he is stopped by the officers and searched. They find the guns and take him. The unfortunate man loudly protests his innocence.)
INES (seeing danger ahead, that is, the stubborn resolve of the police, starts running away and shouting): Margari'! (While the women still try to appease some of the officers, others run off after the fleeing suspects.)
BRIGHELLA (pushes FILIBERTO): Come on! Come on!
FILIBERTO: Just a minute . . . I'm a gentleman . . . A little respect . . .

(The ORGAN GRINDER keeps playing, laughing scornfully.)


JANE HOUSE (Ph.D. in Theater, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York) has worked in theater for many years as a professional actress, director, teacher, and translator, and from 1984-1990 she directed the theater program at Columbia University’s Institute on Western Europe. Her translations of Rosso Di San Secondo’s Puppets of Passion, Federico Tozzi’s The Casting (with Mimi D’Aponte), Ettore Petrolini’s Fortunello, and Pirandello’s 1892 one act, Why? appear in 20th Century Italian Drama. She also collaborated with Anthony Molino on the translation of Manlio Santanelli’s Emergency Exit (Xenos Books, 2000, and available on this web site). Her essay on Raffaele Viviani will appear in The Dictionary of Literary Biography: Modern Italian Theatre, ed. R. Capozzi (Gale Research Inc./Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc., 2003).

ANTONIO ATTISANI teaches the history of theatre at University Ca’ Foscari, Venice. Among his recent publications: Oltre la scena occidente (Beyond the Western Scene) and two volumes on Tibetan theatre. His essays on Tibetan opera and Franciscan Performance appear in PAJ.

MARTHA KING received her Ph.D. in Italian from the University of Wisconsin. She has lived in Tuscany since 1979 and now lives in Florence. Most recently she translated, in collaboration with Mary Ann Frese Witt, Her Husband by Luigi Pirandello (Duke University, 2000); in collaboration with Carol Lazzaro-Weis, La signorina short stories by Anna Banti, (Modern Language Translation Series, 2001); Darkness by Dacia Maraini (Vermont Steerforth Press, 2002) and Humanism and Secularization: From Petrarch to Valla by Riccardo Fubini (Duke University, 2002). Among other Italian writers she has translated are Cesare Pavese, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Grazia Deledda, and Giacomo Leopardi.