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Autori - Eduardo De Filippo

Eduardo De Filippo

a cura di Damiano Camarda

 

Ogni tentativo di dare alla vita un qualunque significato è Teatro.

E. De Filippo

 

Eduardo De Filippo

 

Abstract by Carmela Lucia.

Translated by Patrizia Lopez.

 

The bio-bibliographic profile of Eduardo De Filippo presents a precise and linear pattern of reference, divided into the following sections:

1. His life;
2. The chronology of his theatrical works;
3. The poems;
4. The theoretical writings;
5. The author’s bibliography;
6. A critical bibliography;
7. Encyclopedias and dictionaries

The essential and functional chronology of Eduardo’s life is divided into two parts: the first part refers to a period which extends from 1900, the year of his birth, to 1944, an emblematic date that marks the definitive breakdown in the relations between Eduardo and Peppino which takes place at the Teatro Diana in Naples. The second part includes a series of information that covers the period from 1945 to 1984, which is to say from the year in which Eduardo founds a new company called “Il teatro di Eduardo con Titina De Filippo” up until the last act of his life as an author and actor which coincides with the rewriting of a classic, The Tempest by William Shakespeare. This work is considered a sort of testament because of the meta-theatrical structure which characterizes it and for the extraordinary synthesis between ancient and modern aspects. Presenting this work in the Aula Magna of the University of Rome, Eduardo interprets all the male roles in the play in the dialect of the 1600s, the lyrical baroque style of Basile mixed with the dialectal amalgams taken from the Commedia dell’Arte, all of which evoke, with their intensely expressive language, the sonorous splendour of a multilingualism modulated in literary terms and which is held up today as a model for modern rewritings (from Moscato to Cappuccio).
The section on Eduardo’s life presents detailed information regarding his publications, the theatre companies he founded, the prizes he was awarded, the Festivals which were a consecration of his enormous public success. There is also information strictly tied to his private life, often in the form of anecdotes, and precious annotations that concern all his theatrical works offering data regarding the presentation of all his plays and of his other publications (from Poesie to critical contributions such as the collection of his Lezioni di Teatro).
Like Petito, considered the epitome of the “archetypal actor-writer” (defined this way by Franca Angelini in her Teatro e spettacolo nel primo Novecento, Laterza, 1988, p. 46), Eduardo is a “man of the stage” even more than an author: not by chance, in a famous expression, he defines himself as “an actor by destiny and a playwright and director by vocation and necessity”. At a very early age he begins a rigorous apprenticeship with his father Eduardo Scarpetta as an actor, training his body and his voice while participating side by side with the old mannerist actors. He also begins to write, copying out texts of every dramatic style, and this exercise will allow him to create a solid theatrical cultural base for himself and to master his own “technique” (E. De Filippo, Lezioni di Teatro, edited by P. Quarenghi, preface by F. Marotti, Torino, Einaudi, 1986, p. 135).
Following his debut in 1904 in the operetta La Geisha, Eduardo begins his theatrical career on a stable basis in Vincenzo Scarpetta’s company as a “second comic actor”, together with his sister Titina. Ten years later Eduardo, Titina and their brother Peppino are signed on with the company “Ribalta Gaia” by the producer Aulicino for the debut of the revue Pulcinella principe in sogno at the Teatro Nuovo. Authored by “Kokasse” (alias Mario Mangini) and “Tricot” (Eduardo), the show includes Sik-Sik, l’artefice magico, written by Eduardo the year before.
Almost ten years after Eduardo’s first one-act play Farmacia di Turno (1920), that marks the beginning of his career as a writer, on December 25, 1931 the three De Filippo’s debut at the cinema-theatre Kursaal in via Filangieri with the one-act play Natale in casa Cupiello which is so successful that their contract is extended until May of 1932 (instead of the seven performances foreseen in the original contract, or nine performances in another version). On the wave of this enormous success they set up a company at the Teatro Sannazaro in Naples called “Teatro Umoristico I De Filippo” with Eduardo as artistic director and Peppino as administrator.
1932 is the year in which Eduardo makes his cinematic debut in the film Tre Uomini in Frac : beginning with this experience he becomes ever more open to the possibility of “exploring” his art through the mediums of radio and television.
From 1933 to 1935 the successful tours (San Remo, Torino, Genova, Bologna, Rome as well as two theatres, Odeon and Olimpia, in Milano) allow the company to begin important collaborations with authors such as Bontempelli, D’Ambra and Pirandello. With Pirandello in particular Eduardo will begin a rich and fertile exchange which will only end with the death of the Sicilian writer from Agrigento in 1936. With the rewritings of the plays Il berretto a sonagli, Liolà and L’Abito Nuovo, the art of Eduardo will distance itself forever from the expressive forms of Variety theatre from which it took its origins and from the syntheticism of futurist theatre in order to draw nearer to humoristic theatre, capable of expressing the dark, ambiguous sides of life and its folly. Though he works from a different base than Pirandello, in particular the comic power of the gag, the overturning of situations, the interplay between characters and actors on the stage, Eduardo’s writing will arrive at the same solutions through a sense of the tragic (or through the “sentiment of the contrary” according to Pirandello’s definition). This tragic sense is activated both by the comic force of the signifying character, expressed through verbal equivocation and the parodistic overturning of situations, and by the principal character, the anti-hero, the “sufferer” embodied in the emblematic figures of Sik-Sik and Luca Cupiello, characters who are “out of key” and for whom there is no other alternative but to find salvation in the “bitter part of laughter” or in silence, in aphasia.
In 1940, the year in which Eduardo writes the comedy in three acts Non ti pago!, Titina leaves the company of the “Teatro Umoristico” as a result of disagreements with her brothers (though she will return in 1942). Four years later, at the Teatro Diana in Naples, Eduardo and Peppino arrive at a definitive break-up and Peppino begins a solo career.
In 1945 Eduardo forms a new company, “Il teatro di Eduardo con Titina De Filippo” in whose ranks there are actors of the caliber of Tina Pica, Giovanni Amato, Dolores Palumbo, Pietro and Ester Carloni. The company makes its debut on March 25th at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples with Napoli milionaria! which will have an enormous success together with his three-act play Questi fantasmi! and Filumena Marturano (1946) with Titina in the part of the protagonist (a play so successful that after its debut at the Teatro Politeama in Naples it will have a run of eighty-five performances at the Teatro Eliseo in Rome).
In 1948 Eduardo writes Le voci di dentro and De Pretore Vincenzo, a brief poem in Neapolitan dialect. In the same year he purchases the property where the historical Teatro San Ferdinando once stood (destroyed in the bombings during the second world war) and he begins its reconstruction at his own expense. In order to finance this ambitious project Eduardo dedicates himself to the cinema, realizing the film versions of Napoli milionaria! (1950) and Filumena Marturano (1951), interpreted by Eduardo himself and Titina.
Finally on the 21st of January the Teatro San Ferdinando is inaugurated with the play Palummella zompa e vola by Antonio Petito and with the symbolic “consignment of the mask” of Pulcinella which he himself interprets. He directs the film version of Questi fantasmi! and interprets the episode “Il professore” in the film L’Oro di Napoli by Vittorio De Sica.
In 1958 he revives the ancient myth of the stock comic character Pulcinella in the adaptation Il figlio di Pulcinella and in the same year he writes the radio drama Dolore sotto chiave. 1959 is the year of his first experience in directing a lyrical opera, La pietra di paragone by Gioacchino Rossini.
In 1961, one year after the drafting of the play Il Sindaco del Rione Sanità, Eduardo dedicates himself to the project of recording for RAI television the greater part of his plays.
In the years 1962-’63 he realizes the serial Peppino Girella in collaboration with Isabella Quarantotti (the artist who will later become his wife).
In these same years Eduardo continues to write texts such as: L’Arte della commedia (1964), Il cilindro (1965), Il contratto (1967), Il monumento (1970).
In 1971 he publishes ‘O canisto, a collection of poems, stories and memories. This latest literary achievement confirms the great versatility of Eduardo, a truly complete artist who manages to move naturally from dramaturgy to poetry, from direction to acting, giving proof that he is capable of producing truly fine writing while at the same time culling the favour of a wide audience, a necessity imposed by the new means of mass communication.
In 1972 even the Accademia dei Lincei of Rome celebrates him with the attribution of the prestigious “Premio Feltrinelli”. In the same year the theatre of Eduardo conquers London: first with Napoli milionaria! and then, a year later, with Sabato, domenica e lunedì, directed at the Old Vic by Franco Zeffirelli and interpreted by Laurence Olivier and Joan Plowright. After Gli esami non finiscono mai (1973) he receives a degree in Letters ad honorem from the University of Birmingham (1977) and from the University of Rome (1980).
In 1980, the year of the death of his brother Peppino and of his own nomination to the position of life member of the Italian Senate, Eduardo founds the School of Dramaturgy in Florence for young actors, a project destined to continue in Rome at the University “La Sapienza”.
Certainly Eduardo is a personage who can be evoked as the symbol of an epoch, a classic “one of a kind”, who represents a legacy and an indisputable heritage for all modern theatre. His writings form a really true “theatrical novel” (the definition is by Anna Barsotti) because they represent an all-encompassing dramaturgy capable of summing up the experience of the stage in a full-bodied dramaturgic textuality, without rhetoric, linguistically rich and supple. His theatre takes the comic Neapolitan tradition (of Viviani, Petito, Scarpetta) to unequalled heights; and yet, without renouncing the foundations of this great heritage in which he has solid roots, he breaks away to create a humoristic theatre with an anthropological background in which the folk myths live again in an art which is bitter, grotesque and paradoxical. Opting for the realistic formula allows him to move from the dialectal realm to a wider national audience through an operation in renewal of bourgeois theatre where we continue to find the “centrality of the actor who evolves from a sketch – even in his own manner – to a real character.” (Franca Angelini, Natale in casa Cupiello, in Letteratura italiana. L’età contemporanea. Le opere 1921-1938, edited by A. Asor Rosa, Torino, Einaudi, p. 289). The particular breadth which characterizes Eduardo’s works will render them capable, with “bitter laughter”, of treating themes which can be considered really true tòpoi of the dramaturgy of the 1900s such as the solitude of the characters, the uneasiness with words, non-communication and the difficulty of understanding each other within the nucleus of the family which, as in Pirandello, is a symbol of a true “torture chambre”. These themes are masterfully transfused into perhaps his most famous work, Natale in casa Cupiello, a play which contains in synthesis a history of Eduardo’s dramaturgy. This play changes with the “act” of being brought to the stage through developments and intersections between the text and the performance, proof of a particular “modus operandi” derived from an elaborate calibration of both folk and cultured theatre, “open” and at the same time perfectly planned (ivi, p. 291).
Lastly, one cannot speak of Eduardo without referring to his unmistakable acting style embodied in a truly original gestural expressiveness and mime which coincides with a process of miniaturization and absorption of the action on the stage. The communicative force of his acting is accentuated by his figure which is ever more stripped to the bone and thus, with his unmistakable “mask”, he transmits the great masterly skill of his “natural” acting, obtained by means of a vast artificial construction which is a far cry from theatrical mannerism (we find traces of this also in his memorable Lezioni di teatro). Thanks to the careful rendering of the pragmatic aspects of theatre and to his complete control of the word, the unspoken word (his silences are famous) and the pause (a moment of suspension between the two), Eduardo, as an “actor who writes” (according to the appropriate definition by Macchia), has left an indelible trace in the collective imagery.
We remind you that Eduardo’s texts are not published on this site; we refer you to the philological edition of his opera omnia edited by Paola Quarenghi and Nicola De Blasi in the prestigious collection “I Meridiani” by Mondadori.

 

 

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Résumé par Carmela Lucia.

Traduit par Viviana Miele.

Le profil bio-bibliographique d’Eduardo De Filippo présente un précis et linéaire modèle de référence, qui suit la répartition suivante:

1. la vie;
2. chronologie des œuvres théâtrales;
3. les poèmes;
4. les écrits théoriques;
5. bibliographie de l’auteur;
6. bibliographie critique;
7. encyclopédies et dictionnaires.

La chronologie essentielle et fonctionnelle de la vie s’articule en deux tranches: dans la première section les nouvelles sont comprises dans un arc chronologique qui va du 1900, année de sa naissance, au 1944, date emblématique qui marque la définitive rupture entre Eduardo et Peppino, au Théâtre Diana de Naples. La deuxième partie comprend une répartition de données qui vont du 1945 au 1984, c’est-à-dire de l’année où Eduardo fonde une nouvelle compagnie nommée "Le théâtre d’Eduardo avec Titina De Filippo", au dernier acte de sa vie d’auteur et d’acteur, qui coïncide avec la réécriture d’un modèle classique, La tempête de William Shakespeare. En présentant cet ouvrage, qui est considéré une sorte de testament pour l’installation méta-théâtrale qui la connote et pour l’extraordinaire synthèse entre antique et moderne, Eduardo joue, dans l'Amphithéâtre de l'Université de Rome, tous les rôles masculins de la comédie, en dialecte du 1600, la lyrique baroque de Basile mélangée avec les pétrissages dialectaux prélevés de la Commedia dell’arte, qui évoquent, par un langage fortement expressif, les suggestions sonores d’un plurilinguisme modulé littérairement, aujourd’hui élevé à modèle pour les réécritures modernes (de Moscato à Cappuccio).
La vie d’Eduardo présente des informations détaillées relatives aux publications, aux compagnies fondées par lui-même, aux prix qui lui ont été remis, aux Festival qui le consacrent à l’immense succès de public. Ces données s’alternent puis à d’autres nouvelles étroitement liées à ses événements privés, même de nature anecdotique, sans omettre les précieuses annotations qui concernent toute la théâtrographie, accompagnée des données relatives à la présentation de toutes ses pièces, et des autres publications (des Poèmes aux contributions critiques, comme par exemple le recueil des Leçons de théâtre).
Tout comme Petito, considéré par excellence l’«archétype de l’acteur-écrivain» (ainsi comme le définit Franca Angelini, dans Théâtre et spectacle du début du XX siècle, Laterza, 1988, p. 46), Eduardo est, avant même qu’auteur, un “homme de scène”: non par hasard, il se définit lui-même dans une expression proverbiale “acteur par destin et dramaturge et metteur en scène par vocation et nécessité”. Depuis le premier âge, avec son père Eduardo Scarpetta, il se consacre à un dur apprentissage, en jouant comme acteur, jongleur de scène et de la phoné, en contact avec les vieux acteurs maniéristes; il commence à écrire, en recopiant des textes de tout genre dramatique, exercice qui lui permettra de créer les bases d’une solide culture théâtrale et s’emparer d’une «technique» (E. De Filippo, Leçons de théâtre, par P. Quarenghi, préface de F. Marotti, Torino, Einaudi, 1986, p. 135). Du début en 1904 avec l’opérette La Geisha, Eduardo commence sa carrière théâtrale en rentrant à titre définitif dans la compagnie de Vincenzo Scarpetta en qualité de “second acteur comique”, avec sa sœur Titina. Dix ans plus tard, avec celle-ci et le troisième de ses frères, Peppino, il est engagé au Théâtre Nuovo par l’entrepreneur Aulicino, avec la compagnie "Ribalta Gaia", qui débute avec la revue Polichinelle prince en rêve. Le spectacle, signé par "Kokasse" (alias Mario Mangini) et "Tricot" (Eduardo), comprend l'acte unique Sik-Sik, l'artisan magique, composé l'année précédente par Eduardo.
A presque dix ans de distance du premier acte unique d’Eduardo, Pharmacie de service (1920) qui marque le début de la carrière d’écrivain d’Eduardo, le 25 décembre du 1931 les frères De Filippo débutent au cinéma-théâtre Kursaal situé dans la rue Filangieri, avec l'acte unique Natale in casa Cupiello, qui obtient un succès de public tel qu’il impose une prorogation au contrat jusqu’en mai 1932 (neuf jours de représentations, par rapport au sept prévus). Sur la vague de ce grand consentement, la compagnie "Théâtre Humoristique I De Filippo" est fondée. Eduardo en devient le directeur artistique et Peppino l’administrateur (le Théâtre Sannazzaro de Naples en était le siège).
Le 1932 est l’année où Eduardo débute au cinéma, dans le film Trois hommes en frac: à partir de cette expérience il s’ouvrira de plus en plus à la possibilité d’“éprouver” son art même à la radio et à la télévision.
Du 1933 au 1935, les chanceuses tournées (à San Remo, Turin, Gêne, Bologne, Rome, ainsi qu’aux théâtres Odéon et Olimpia de Milan) consentiront à la compagnie de commencer des collaborations importantes avec des auteurs comme Bontempelli, D'Ambra, Pirandello. En particulier, ce sera avec Pirandello qu’Eduardo commencera un dialogue féconde, qui s'interrompra seulement avec la mort de l’écrivain d’Agrigento en 1936: avec les réécritures des comédies Le bonnet à sonnettes, Liolà et Le nouvel habit, l’art d’Eduardo se détachera définitivement des formes expressives du théâtre de Variété, duquel il était parti, ainsi que du synthétisme du théâtre futuriste, pour s’approcher de plus en plus au théâtre humoristique, capable d’exprimer les côtés obscures, ambigus et fous du vivre. Même si elle part de fondations différentes par rapport à Pirandello, et en particulier du comique des gag, du chavirement des situations, du travail de confrontation entre personnages et acteurs sur scène, l’écriture d’Eduardo aboutira aux mêmes solutions par le sens du tragique (ou du “sentiment du contraire” selon la diction de Pirandello), activé par la force du comique (le comique du signifiant, qui trouve expression dans les dispositifs du malentendu verbal et du renversement parodique) aussi bien que par le personnage privilégié, l’anti-héros, le “battu”, incarné dans les emblématiques personnages de Sik-Sik et Luca Cupiello, personnages détonnés, pour lesquels il ne reste pas d’autres solutions que de trouver leur salut dans la “partie amère du rire” ou dans le silence, dans l’aphasie.
En 1940, année de la composition de la comédie en trois actes Non ti pago!, Titina quitte la compagnie du "Théâtre Humoristique", à la suite des disputes avec ses frères (pour ensuite y rentrer de nouveau en 1942), tandis que quatre années après, au Théâtre Diana de Naples, a lieu la définitive rupture entre Eduardo et Peppino, qui entreprendra une carrière autonome.
En 1945 Eduardo forme une nouvelle compagnie, "Le théâtre d’Eduardo avec Titina De Filippo", qui compte parmi ses acteurs: Tina Pica, Giovanni Amato, Dolores Palumbo, Pietro et Ester Carloni. La compagnie débute le 25 mars au Théâtre San Carlo de Naples avec Naples millionnaire!: comédie qui obtiendra un grand succès de public, avec les trois actes Ces fantômes!, et avec Filumena Marturano (du 1946), où Titina joue le rôle de la protagoniste (on considère seulement qu’après le début au Théâtre Politeama de Naples ce spectacle sera représenté pendant quatre-vingt-cinq soirs au Théâtre Elysée de Rome).
En 1948 Eduardo écrit Les voix de l’intérieur et De Pretore Vincenzo, bref poème en dialecte napolitain; la même année, il achète le terrain sur lequel surgissait l’historique Théâtre San Ferdinando, détruit par les bombardements durant la guerre mondiale, et il en démarre la reconstruction à ses dépenses. Pour financier cet ambitieux projet, Eduardo se consacre au cinéma, en réalisant les versions cinématographiques de Naples millionaire! ('50) et Filumena Marturano ('51), interprété par Eduardo même et Titina.
Enfin le 21 janvier il inaugure le théâtre San Ferdinando avec la comédie Palummella zompa e vola de Antonio Petito et avec la symbolique "remise des masques" de Pulcinella, interprété par lui-même. Il dirige la version cinématographique de Ces fantômes! et interprète l'épisode "Le professeur" dans le film L'or de Naples de Vittorio De Sica.
En 1958, il fait revivre l’ancien mythe du masque de Polichinelle dans la réécriture Le fils de Polichinelle; de la même année est le radio-drame Douleur sous clé. En 1959 il réalise la première de ses mises en scène lyriques, en dirigeant La pierre de comparaison de Gioacchino Rossini. En 1961, une année après la rédaction de la comédie Le Maire du quartier Sanità, Eduardo se dédie à l’enregistrement pour la RAI d’une grande partie des comédies du répertoire. Il réalise (pendant les années 1962-63) le feuilleton télévisé Peppino Girella, en collaboration avec Isabella Quarantotti (artiste qui deviendra par la suite sa femme).
Toujours pendant ces années-là Eduardo continue à écrire des textes comme: L'art de la comédie (1964), Le cylindre (1965), Le contrat (1967), Le monument (1970).
En 1971 est publié 'O canisto, recueil de poèmes, contes et souvenirs. Cette dernière épreuve d’auteur confirme la grande versatilité d’Eduardo, véritable artiste à 360 degrés, qui réussit à passer avec nonchalance de l’écriture théâtrale à la poésie, de la mise en scène au jeu, en montrant d’être capable de se concentrer dans la rigueur de l’écriture aussi bien que de seconder les tendances de marché, imposées par les nouveaux outils de communication de masse. En 1972 même l’Académie des Lincei à Rome le célèbre avec l’attribution du prestigieux "Prix Feltrinelli". La même année le théâtre d’Eduardo conquiert Londres: dans un premier temps avec Naples millionnaire!; puis, l'année d’après, avec Samedi, dimanche et lundi, dirigé à l'Old Vic par Franco Zaffirelli et interprété par Laurence Olivier et Joan Plowright. Après Les examens ne finissent jamais, (1973) il est reconnu lauréat en lettres auprès de l’Université de Birmigham (1977) et de Rome (1980). En 1980 (année de la mort de son frère Peppino), nommé sénateur à vie, Eduardo fonde pour les jeunes acteurs l’Ecole de Dramaturgie de Florence, destinée ensuite à poursuivre à Rome auprès de «La Sapienza». Eduardo est sûrement un personnage qui est évoqué comme symbole d’une époque, un classique unique dans son genre, qui représente un patrimoine et un héritage indiscutable pour tout le théâtre moderne.
Ses écrits se condensent dans un véritable “roman théâtral” (la définition est attribuée à Anna Barsotti), puisque ils représentent l’exemple d’une dramaturgie globale, capable de résumer l’expérience de la scène dans une dense textualité dramaturgique, privée de rhétorique, linguistiquement riche et ductile. Son théâtre mène la tradition comique napolitaine (de Viviani, Petito, Scapetta) à des très hauts niveaux; toutefois, même s’il ne renonce pas aux institutions de ce grand héritage, dans lequel il coule ses racines très solides, il s’en détache pour la création d’un théâtre humoristique à fond anthropologique, dans lequel les mythes populaires revivent dans un art amer, grotesque et paradoxal. L’option pour la formule réaliste permet le passage de la dialectalité à la nationalité, par une opération de renouvellement vers le théâtre bourgeois, où reste la «centralité de l’acteur, qui évolue de bouffon – même si dans sa version – à personnage» (cfr. Franca Angelini, Natale in casa Cupiello, dans Littérature italienne. L’époque contemporaine. Les œuvres 1921-1938, par A. Asor Rosa, Torino, Einaudi, p. 289). La singulière partition propre des œuvres d’Eduardo sera capable, avec un “rire amer”, de parler de thèmes qui se confirmeront comme des véritables tòpoi de la dramaturgie du XX siècle, comme la solitude des personnages, les malaises de la parole, l’incommunicabilité et la difficulté à se comprendre au sein du noyau familial, comme pour Pirandello, symbole d’une véritable “chambre de la torture”. Ces thèmes sont magistralement abordés dans probablement la plus célèbre de ses œuvres, Natale in casa Cupiello, comédie qui contient en synthèse une histoire de la dramaturgie d’Eduardo, puisqu’elle change avec l’“épreuve” de la scène, pour des accroissements et des intersections entre texte et performance, en donnant épreuve d’un particulier “modus operandi”, dérivé d’un élaboré calibrage de théâtre populaire et cultivé, “ouvert” et en même temps parfaitement planifié (ivi, p. 291). Enfin, on ne peut pas parler d’Eduardo sans citer son unique art d’acteur, incarné dans les signes d’une originale gestualité et mimique, déclinée avec ce qui coïncide avec un processus de miniaturisation et absorption de l’action sur scène. La force communicative de son jeu sera accentuée par son personnage, de plus en plus “décharné”, capable de véhiculer avec son unique “masque” le grand magistère de son jeu “naturel”, obtenu, en même temps, grâce à une grande construction artificielle et lointaine du maniérisme récitatif (de cela on garde des traces même dans ses mémorables Leçons de théâtre). Grâce au soin du rendu des aspects pragmatiques du théâtre, obtenus même par le contrôle totale entre parole - non-dit (célèbres sont restés ses silences) et pause (moment de suspension entre les deux), Eduardo, en tant qu’ “acteur qui écrit” (selon la chanceuse définition de Macchia), a laissé une trace indélébile dans l’imaginaire collectif.
On rappelle que les textes d’Eduardo ne sont pas publiés sur le Site; on renvoie à l’édition philologique de l’œuvre intégrale par Paola Quarenghi et Nicola De Blasi dans le prestigieux recueil “I Meridiani” de Mondadori.

 

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Abstract by Carmela Lucia.

摘要 卡梅拉  露西亚

 

The bio-bibliographic profile of Eduardo De Filippo presents a precise and linear pattern of reference, divided into the following sections:
爱德华多德菲利波的自传书目呈现了精确且线性的参考格局,可分为以下部分:

1. His life;

1 他的一生
2. The chronology of his theatrical works;

2 其戏剧作品时序表
3. The poems;

3 诗歌
4. The theoretical writings;

4 理论著作
5. The author's bibliography;

5 作者自传
6. A critical bibliography;

6 批判性自传
7. Encyclopedias and dictionaries

7 百科全书与字典

The essential and functional chronology of Eduardo's life is divided into two parts: the first part refers to a period which extends from 1900, the year of his birth, to 1944, an emblematic date that marks the definitive breakdown in the relations between Eduardo and Peppino which takes place at the Teatro Diana in Naples. The second part includes a series of information that covers the period from 1945 to 1984, which is to say from the year in which Eduardo founds a new company called "Il teatro di Eduardo con Titina De Filippo" up until the last act of his life as an author and actor which coincides with the rewriting of a classic, The Tempest by William Shakespeare. This work is considered a sort of testament because of the meta-theatrical structure which characterizes it and for the extraordinary synthesis between ancient and modern aspects. Presenting this work in the Aula Magna of the University of Rome, Eduardo interprets all the male roles in the play in the dialect of the 1600s, the lyrical baroque style of Basile mixed with the dialectal amalgams taken from the Commedia dell'Arte, all of which evoke, with their intensely expressive language, the sonorous splendour of a multilingualism modulated in literary terms and which is held up today as a model for modern rewritings (from Moscato to Cappuccio).

爱德华多一生最重要并最富成果的时间段可分为两部分:第一部分从其出生之年1900至1944年标志性的一天。在那天,爱德华多与裴皮诺的关系在那不勒斯戴安娜剧院彻底断绝。第二个部分包括从1945年至1984年期间发生的各类事件;期间爱德华多成立了一间新剧场,名为"Il teatro di Eduardo con Titina De Filippo",直到其作为作家与演员身份的生命的最后一刻。剧场创立之时,恰逢其改写了莎士比亚的经典剧目--《暴风雨》。该作品证明了其写作具有超戏剧的结构特征及对古代和现代部分的完美融合。该作品在罗马大学大礼堂演出时,爱德华多对剧中所有男性角色均以17世纪方言进行阐释;融合了巴西莱的抒情巴洛克风格与即兴喜剧中的方言,这一切以其极具表现力的语言唤起了文学领域多语言的无限光彩。直至今日,其仍被作为现代改写的范本。(从莫斯卡托到卡普西奥)


The section on Eduardo's life presents detailed information regarding his publications, the theatre companies he founded, the prizes he was awarded, the Festivals which were a consecration of his enormous public success. There is also information strictly tied to his private life, often in the form of anecdotes, and precious annotations that concern all his theatrical works offering data regarding the presentation of all his plays and of his other publications (from Poesie to critical contributions such as the collection of his Lezioni di Teatro).

「爱德华多一生」部分呈现了其发表刊物方面的详细信息、其成立的剧场、获得的荣誉奖项、以及展现其成就的各类节日。此外,还有有关其私生活的信息,通常以轶事的方式呈现,以及关于他所有戏剧作品的珍贵注解,针对其所有作品呈现和其他出版物提供了资料。(从《Poesie 》到其重要的贡献,如对于Lezioni di Teatro的搜集)。
Like Antonio Petito, considered the epitome of the "archetypal actor-writer" (defined this way by Franca Angelini in her Teatro e spettacolo nel primo Novecento, Laterza, 1988, p. 46), Eduardo is a "man of the stage" even more than an author: not by chance, in a famous expression, he defines himself as "an actor by destiny and a playwright and director by vocation and necessity". At a very early age he begins a rigorous apprenticeship with his father Eduardo Scarpetta as an actor, training his body and his voice while participating side by side with the old mannerist actors. He also begins to write, copying out texts of every dramatic style, and this exercise will allow him to create a solid theatrical cultural base for himself and to master his own "technique" (E. De Filippo, Lezioni di Teatro, edited by P. Quarenghi, preface by F. Marotti, Torino, Einaudi, 1986, p. 135).

如同Petito被认为是最具代表性的演员作家,(该词汇由弗兰卡•安洁莉妮在其作品 "Teatro e spettacolo nel primo Novecento" 做出定义。拉泰尔扎,1988,第46页。)相较于其作家身份,爱德华多是一个天生就属于舞台的人,这并非偶然,于一广为人知的自述中,他如此定义自己:「作为演员是我的天命,作为剧作家和导演是我求生存的必然」。他在很小的时候便与身为演员的父亲,爱德华多•思卡尔佩塔,开始严格的学徒学习生活:训练体格及嗓音,同时与自成一派的资深演员一起演戏。他还开始写作,复制每种戏剧风格文本。同时这种练习为其建立了稳固的戏剧文化基础,并掌握了个人「技巧」(E•德•菲利波,Lezioni di TeatroP. Quarenghi编辑,绪论由F. Marotti, Torino和Einaudi撰写,1986,第135)。


Following his debut in 1904 in the operetta La Geisha, Eduardo begins his theatrical career on a stable basis in Vincenzo Scarpetta's company as a "second comic actor", together with his sister Titina. Ten years later Eduardo, Titina and their brother Peppino are signed on with the company "Ribalta Gaia" by the producer Aulicino for the debut of the revue Pulcinella principe in sogno at the Teatro Nuovo. Authored by "Kokasse" (alias Mario Mangini) and "Tricot" (Eduardo), the show includes Sik-Sik, l'artefice magico, written by Eduardo the year before.

自1904年他在轻歌剧La Geisha首次登台之后,爱德华多与妹妹蒂蒂娜在文森佐•思卡尔佩塔的剧场出任「二线喜剧演员」,开始了稳定的戏剧生涯。十年之后,爱德华多、蒂蒂娜及其兄弟裴皮诺与制作人Aulicino 的Ribalta Gaia剧场签约,于Nuovo剧院上演的讽刺滑稽剧Pulcinella principe in sogno 中首次演出。该剧目由"Kokasse"(别名Mario Mangini)和"Tricot"(爱德华多)创作。 此剧包含前一年由爱德华多创作的Sik-Sikl'artefice magico


Almost ten years after Eduardo's first one-act play Farmacia di Turno (1920), which marks the beginning of his career as a writer, on December 25, 1931 the three De Filippo's debut at the cinema-theatre Kursaal in via Filangieri with the one-act play Natale in casa Cupiello was so successful that their contract is extended until May of 1932 (instead of the seven performances foreseen in the original contract, or nine performances in another version). On the wave of this enormous success they set up a company at the Teatro Sannazaro in Naples called "Teatro Umoristico I De Filippo" with Eduardo as artistic director and Peppino as administrator.

爱德华多首次的单幕剧为 Farmacia di Turno1920,该剧标志着其作家生涯的开始。在该剧上演近十年后19311225日,德•菲利波于Filangieri路上的电影剧院Kursaal的三次演出单人剧目  Natale in casa Cupiello获得极大成功,因此,他们的合约延至1932年5月(原始合约中,只有七场演出,又另一版本中为9场)。在此次巨大的成功之时,他们在那不勒斯的Teatro Sannazaro创立了一个剧场,名为Teatro Umoristico I De Filippo,由爱德华多担任艺术总监,而裴皮诺担任经理。

1932 is the year in which Eduardo makes his cinematic debut in the film Tre Uomini in Frac: beginning with this experience he becomes ever more open to the possibility of "exploring" his art through the mediums of radio and television.

1932年,爱德华多演出了其电影处女作--Tre Uomini in Frac 。以此次经历为开端,他更为积极地通过广播和电视「开拓」自己的艺术潜力。


From 1933 to 1935 the successful tours (San Remo, Torino, Genova, Bologna, Rome as well as two theatres, Odeon and Olimpia, in Milano) allow the company to begin important collaborations with authors such as Bontempelli, D'Ambra and Pirandello. With Pirandello in particular Eduardo will begin a rich and fertile exchange which will only end with the death of the Sicilian writer from Agrigento in 1936. With the rewritings of the plays Il berretto a sonagliLiolà and L'Abito Nuovo, the art of Eduardo will distance itself forever from the expressive forms of Variety theatre from which it took its origins and from the syntheticism of futurist theatre in order to draw nearer to humoristic theatre, capable of expressing the dark, ambiguous sides of life and its folly. Though he works from a different base than Pirandello, in particular the comic power of the gag, the overturning of situations, the interplay between characters and actors on the stage, Eduardo's writing will arrive at the same solutions through a sense of the tragic (or through the "sentiment of the contrary" according to Pirandello's definition). This tragic sense is activated both by the comic force of the signifying character, expressed through verbal equivocation and the parodistic overturning of situations, and by the principal character, the anti-hero, the "sufferer" embodied in the emblematic figures of Sik-Sik and Luca Cupiello, characters who are "out of key" and for whom there is no other alternative but to find salvation in the "bitter part of laughter" or in silence, in aphasia.

从1933年至1935年期间的成功巡回表演(圣雷莫、都灵、热内亚、波隆纳、罗马及两个米兰的剧院欧迪翁及奥林匹亚)使得该剧场与一些重要作家们开始进行合作,例如Bontempelli, D'Ambra和Pirandello。特别是Pirandello,爱德华多开始与其进行了成果丰富的交流,这段关系直至1936年来自西西里Agrigento的Pirandello辞世那刻方才终止。爱德华多的才华虽源自综艺剧场富有表现力的演绎方式,但改写Il berretto a sonagliLiolàL'Abito Nuovo时,他从此与此种风格分道扬镳。此外,爱德华多为能更加表现幽默戏剧以及生活的黑暗面、灰色地带以及愚昧之处,他的写作也脱离了未来主义剧场的综合主义。尽管相较于Pirandello,他工作是具有不同的基调,尤其是戏剧笑点的喜剧效果情景的颠覆舞台上角色与演员的互动,然爱德华多的写作利用悲剧感达到了相同的效果(或过由Pirandello所定义的相反情绪)。象征角色透过含糊语言的表达及极度的情景颠覆所创造的喜剧力量以及主角,反英雄者,如在Sik-Sik和Luca Cupiello中蕴含「受害者」形象的象徵性人物这种「非关键」角色,他们没有其他选择,只能「苦中作乐」或从静默无语中寻找救赎; 这种悲剧感即是这两者所共同激发的。


In 1940, the year in which Eduardo writes the comedy in three acts Non ti pago!, Titina leaves the company of the "Teatro Umoristico" as a result of disagreements with her brothers (though she will return in 1942). Four years later, at the Teatro Diana in Naples, Eduardo and Peppino arrive at a definitive break-up and Peppino begins a solo career.

在1940年,爱德华多撰写了一部三幕喜剧作品Non ti pago!蒂蒂娜由于与兄弟们意见不合离开了Teatro Umoristico公司(尽管她在1942年回来了)。四年后,在那不勒斯戴安娜剧院,爱德华多与裴皮诺关系彻底断裂,裴皮诺开始了单独的事业生涯。


In 1945 Eduardo forms a new company, "Il teatro di Eduardo con Titina De Filippo" in whose ranks there are actors of the caliber of Tina Pica, Giovanni Amato, Dolores Palumbo, Pietro and Ester Carloni. The company makes its debut on March 25th at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples with Napoli milionaria! which will have an enormous success together with his three-act play Questi fantasmi! and Filumena Marturano (1946) with Titina in the part of the protagonist (a play so successful that after its debut at the Teatro Politeama in Naples it will have a run of eighty-five performances at the Teatro Eliseo in Rome).

在1945年,爱德华多成立了一个新的公司Il teatro di Eduardo con Titina De Filippo,其中有很多优秀的演员,包括Tina Pica, Giovanni Amato, Dolores Palumbo, Pietro and Ester Carloni。3月25日,该公司在那不勒斯的San Carlo剧院首演了-Napoli milionaria!该剧与其三幕剧Questi fantasmiFilumena Marturano (1946)中都获得了巨大的成功,蒂蒂娜演出其中一个主要角色(该剧成功到在那不勒斯的Politeama首次演出之后,又在罗马Eliseo剧场进行了85场表演)。
In 1948 Eduardo writes Le voci di dentro and De Pretore Vincenzo, a brief poem in Neapolitan dialect. In the same year he purchases the property where the historical Teatro San Ferdinando once stood (destroyed in the bombings during the second world war) and he begins its reconstruction at his own expense. In order to finance this ambitious project Eduardo dedicates himself to the cinema, realizing the film versions of Napoli milionaria! (1950) and Filumena Marturano (1951), interpreted by Eduardo himself and Titina.

1948年,爱德华多撰写了Le voci di dentroDe Pretore Vincenzo这是一首以那不勒斯方言写作的小诗。在同一年,他购买了San Ferdinando剧院(在第二次世界大战中被炸毁)的旧址并自行出资进行重建工作。为了这一庞大计画筹资,他投身于影院,制作了电影版的Napoli milionaria!1950)和Filumena Marturano (1951)他本人与蒂蒂娜演出
Finally on the 21st of January the Teatro San Ferdinando is inaugurated with the play Palummella zompa e vola by Antonio Petito and with the symbolic "consignment of the mask" of Pulcinella which he himself interprets. He directs the film version of Questi fantasmi! and interprets the episode "Il professore" in the film L'Oro di Napoli by Vittorio De Sica.

最后,在1月21日,San Ferdinando剧院以 Antonio PetitoPalummella zompa e vola以及Pulcinella本人参与演出的具有象征意义的consignment of the mask正式揭幕。他指导了Questi fantasmi电影版,并演出了Vittorio De Sica的电影 L'Oro di Napoli 的其中一段"il professore"。
In 1958 he revives the ancient myth of the stock comic character Pulcinella in the adaptation Il figlio di Pulcinella and in the same year he writes the radio drama Dolore sotto chiave. 1959 is the year of his first experience in directing a lyrical opera, La pietra di paragone by Gioacchino Rossini.

1958年,他重新改编了Il figlio di Pulcinella 使得剧中古代神话的喜剧角色Pulcinella再次复活,同年他撰写了广播剧Dolore sotto chiave1959他第一次指导了由Gioacchino Rossini所写的抒情歌剧La pietra di paragone
In 1961, one year after the drafting of the play Il Sindaco del Rione Sanità, Eduardo dedicates himself to the project of recording for RAI television the greater part of his plays.
In the years 1962-'63 he realizes the serial Peppino Girella in collaboration with Isabella Quarantotti (the artist who will later become his wife).

1961年,在写完戏剧Il Sindaco del Rione Sanità初稿的一年之后,爱德华多开始投身于RAI电视台的录影活动中,录制了他个人作品中最杰出的角色。在1962至63年,他与Isabella Quarantotti(一位艺术家,后来成为他的妻子)合作,创作了Peppino Girella系列。
In these same years Eduardo continues to write texts such as: L'Arte della commedia (1964), Il cilindro (1965), Il contratto (1967), Il monumento (1970).

在这些年中,爱德华多继续创作剧本,例如L'Arte della commedia (1964), Il cilindro (1965), Il contratto (1967), Il monumento (1970)。
In 1971 he publishes 'O canisto, a collection of poems, stories and memories. This latest literary achievement confirms the great versatility of Eduardo, a truly complete artist who manages to move naturally from dramaturgy to poetry, from direction to acting, giving proof that he is capable of producing truly fine writing while at the same time culling the favour of a wide audience, a necessity imposed by the new means of mass communication.

在1971年,他出版了一本集诗歌、小说和回忆录于一体的书'O canisto这一最新的文学成就肯定了爱德华多的多才多艺。他是一个全能的艺术家,能够自由走于剧本与诗歌创作导演与表演之间,证明了他能够创作出真正的高质量作品,同时获得很多观众的青睐,而这是新型大众传播方式所要求的必备能力。
In 1972 even the Accademia dei Lincei of Rome celebrates him with the attribution of the prestigious "Premio Feltrinelli". In the same year the theatre of Eduardo conquers London: first with Napoli milionaria! and then, a year later, with Sabato, domenica e lunedì, directed at the Old Vic by Franco Zeffirelli and interpreted by Laurence Olivier and Joan Plowright. After Gli esami non finiscono mai (1973) he receives a degree in Letters ad honorem from the University of Birmingham (1977) and from the University of Rome (1980).

1972年,罗马山猫学会授予爱德华多著名的Feltrinelli獎。同年,爱德华多剧院在伦敦也获得了巨大的成功:第一次是 Napoli milionaria!另外则是一年后Franco Zeffirelli在老维克所导演的Sabato, domenica e lunedì,由Laurence Olivier和Joan Plowright出演。在 Gli esami non finiscono mai (1973)之后,他被伯明翰大学(1977)及罗马大学(1980)以信函告知授与ad honorem学位。
In 1980, the year of the death of his brother Peppino and of his own nomination to the position of life member of the Italian Senate, Eduardo founds the School of Dramaturgy in Florence for young actors, a project destined to continue in Rome at the University "La Sapienza".

1980年,在他本人获得意大利参议院终身成员的提名,其兄长裴皮诺去世。同年爱德华多在佛罗伦萨成立了戏剧学院,以培养年轻演员,至今留存在罗马La Sapienza大学。
Certainly Eduardo is a personage who can be evoked as the symbol of an epoch, a classic "one of a kind", who represents a legacy and an indisputable heritage for all modern theatre. His writings form a really true "theatrical novel" (the definition is by Anna Barsotti) because they represent an all-encompassing dramaturgy capable of summing up the experience of the stage in a full-bodied dramaturgic textuality, without rhetoric, linguistically rich and supple. His theatre takes the comic Neapolitan tradition (of Viviani, Petito, Scarpetta) to unequalled heights; and yet, without renouncing the foundations of this great heritage in which he has solid roots, he breaks away to create a humoristic theatre with an anthropological background in which the folk myths live again in an art which is bitter, grotesque and paradoxical. Opting for the realistic formula allows him to move from the dialectal realm to a wider national audience through an operation in renewal of bourgeois theatre where we continue to find the "centrality of the actor who evolves from a sketch - even in his own manner - to a real character." (Franca Angelini, Natale in casa Cupiello, in Letteratura italiana. L'età contemporanea. Le opere 1921-1938, edited by A. Asor Rosa, Torino, Einaudi, p. 289). The particular breadth which characterizes Eduardo's works will render them capable, with "bitter laughter", of treating themes which can be considered really true tòpoi of the dramaturgy of the 1900s such as the solitude of the characters, the uneasiness with words, non-communication and the difficulty of understanding each other within the nucleus of the family which, as in Pirandello, is a symbol of a true "torture chambre". These themes are masterfully transfused into perhaps his most famous work, Natale in casa Cupiello, a play which contains in synthesis a history of Eduardo's dramaturgy. This play changes with the "act" of being brought to the stage through developments and intersections between the text and the performance, proof of a particular "modus operandi" derived from an elaborate calibration of both folk and cultured theatre, "open" and at the same time perfectly planned (ivi, p. 291).

理所当然地,爱德华多可被视为一个时代的象征、典型地「独一无二」,他无庸置疑地是传承现代戏剧丰富遗产的代表者。其作品展现了真正意义上的「戏剧小说」(Anna Barsotti所定义),呈现了包罗万象的戏剧作品,能够以浓郁的戏剧文本展现舞台经验,没有修辞,也没有华丽辞藻。他的影院将那不勒斯传统的戏剧风格(Viviani, Petito, Scarpetta地区)发挥到了无与伦比的境界。然而,他没有放弃这些蕴育其作品的伟大根源,与此同时,他还进行了突破,创造了一个具有人类学背景幽默剧场,在这种背景之下,民间神话与传说以一种更为苦涩、怪异和矛盾的形式再次重生。选择现实主义的表现方式使其观众从方言人群转向了全国观众,并通过对资产阶级剧院进行重建使得我们能够持续探索「透过自己的方式从跃然纸上描述转化成真实人物的演员中心主义」(Franca Angelini, Natale in casa Cupiello, in Letteratura italiana. L'età contemporanea. Le opere 1921-1938, 由A. Asor Rosa, Torino, Einaudi编辑, 第289页)。爱德华多作品中这种特殊的广度使其能够获得广泛回响。他以「苦涩的微笑」来表达这些主题,而这些主题被认为是20世纪剧作真正的tòpoi,例如角色的孤独、语言的不自在、家庭核心成员间的难以交流或交流困难,如在Pirandello的作品中即象徵「受刑室」。这些主题非常成功地融入在他的大部分著作之中。Natale in casa Cupiello这出剧浓缩了爱德华多剧作的整个历程。这个戏剧通过剧本与表演间的发展和交融来将「表演」带上舞台。其是一种非常特别的「创作手法」,来源于民间戏剧与成熟戏剧的精心的融合,这种创作非常地「开放」,同时也设定准备充分。(ivi, 第291页)。


Lastly, one cannot speak of Eduardo without referring to his unmistakable acting style embodied in a truly original gestural expressiveness and mime which coincides with a process of miniaturization and absorption of the action on the stage. The communicative force of his acting is accentuated by his figure which is ever more stripped to the bone and thus, with his unmistakable "mask", he transmits the great masterly skill of his "natural" acting, obtained by means of a vast artificial construction which is a far cry from theatrical mannerism (we find traces of this also in his memorable Lezioni di teatro). Thanks to the careful rendering of the pragmatic aspects of theatre and to his complete control of the word, the unspoken word (his silences are famous) and the pause (a moment of suspension between the two), Eduardo, as an "actor who writes" (according to the appropriate definition by Macchia), has left an indelible trace in the collective imagery.

最后,谈到爱德华多不可不谈的是他精湛的演技,主要蕴含在准确的手势表达及默剧表现方式,同时也表现在其对舞台表演的动作收敛和吸收的过程。其表演的沟通力是通过身体来表现的。在表演时,其身段比以往任何时候都柔软,因此,他用完美的「面具」将精湛自然的演技传递出来,而这种演技透过强大的人为控制方式呈现,与矫揉造作的戏剧表现方式相去甚远。(我们也可在其难忘的 Lezioni di teatro中找到一些蛛丝马迹)。由于其对戏剧现实方面的细心渲染及其对语言及肢体语言(其沉默表演也很出名)的精确把握、停顿(两个画面间的间隔停顿),爱德华多,作为一个「写作演员」(依照Macchia的精确定义),在所有人的心中留下了不可磨灭的迹象。
We remind you that Eduardo's texts are not published on this site; we refer you to the philological edition of his opera omnia edited by Paola Quarenghi and Nicola De Blasi in the prestigious collection "I Meridiani" by Mondadori.

在此提醒您的是爱德华多的剧本在本网站并未发表,我们提供的是由Mondadori所著、Paola Quarenghi和Nicola De Blasi所编辑的著名合集"I Meridiani" 中,歌剧omnia 的语言版本。

 

Traduzione di Yue Wu.